"Design"

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[["Sponsors" | <font face="trebuchet ms" style="color:#FFFFFF" size="4">'''Sponsors''' </font>]]  
[["Sponsors" | <font face="trebuchet ms" style="color:#FFFFFF" size="4">'''Sponsors''' </font>]]  
</div>
</div>
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[[Image:MARIMOD.png|750px]]
 
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<div style="padding: 10px; color: #3ca83c; background-color: #3ca83c; width: 730px">
 
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<center>
 
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<font face="trebuchet ms" style="color:#FFFFFF" size="5">'''Welcome to HOKKAIDO-U MARIMOD page'''</font><br></center>
 
-
</div>
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Background</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
Biomolecular motor system such as microtubule-kinesin is an example of smallest natural machine <br>
 
-
that can convert chemical energy obtained from ATP into mechanical work with high efficiency and<br>
 
-
specific power. Nowadays microtubule-kinesin system, one of the biomolecular motor system, is being<br>
 
-
used as a building block for constructing micro-actuators and driving unit of the biodevices. Kinesin<br>
 
-
converts chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP molecules into directed, stepwise motion <br>
 
-
along microtubule.</p>
 
-
[[Image:Motility_assay.png| 600px ]]
 
-
<p>
 
-
Our experimental system is the assembly of biotinylated microtubules cross-linked <br>
 
-
through the interaction of streptavidin via active transport on a kinesin-coated surface.This process <br>
 
-
is called dynamic self-organization and has been drawing much attention to integrate highly organized <br>
 
-
microtubule assemblies.<br>
 
-
Ring-shaped microtubule assemblies have been demonstrated to obtain through dynamic self-organization.<br>
 
-
Considering the advantage of its geometry and handedness, they have appeared to be a promising tool<br>
 
-
to harness continuous rotational motion without changing the position of its mass center.</p>
 
-
[[Image:DSA.png| 580px]]
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Problem</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
Although ring-shaped microtubules possess immense potential with respect to their prospective <br>
 
-
application in nanotechnology, several barriers needed to be surmounted yet as listed below.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.1</font>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_1.png| 415px]]<br>
 
-
In a closed system, consumption of energy spoils the potential activity of ring-shaped <br>
 
-
microtubules. Supply of energy through ATP hydrolysis is a prerequisite to keep the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules working continuously. Development of a system to provide energy continuously is <br>
 
-
highly desired.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.2</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_2.png| 380px]]<br>
 
-
It is still unknown how much power we can harness from the rotational motion of the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules. Once known, the power could be designed to use further in an appropriate way.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.3</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_3.png| 370px]]<br>
 
-
No system has been developed yet that can work by transmitting the power harnessed from<br>
 
-
ring-shaped microtubules. This drawback is preventing integration or amplification of the power<br>
 
-
of smallest natural machines.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Solution</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 1</font><br>====
 
-
[[Image:Solution_1.png| 500px]]<br>
 
-
Ring-shaped microtubules are driven by kinesin where the energy comes from the hydrolysis<br>
 
-
of ATP to ADP. A system that can use the ADP to reproduce ATP allow us to keep the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules working continuously. To develop such a system, we synthesize micro gels <br>
 
-
which contain F1/F0- ATPase together with photosystems. This gel is termed as “Marimo-Gel”.<br>
 
-
The Marimo-Gel converts ADP to ATP by utilizing the energy from light.
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 2</font><br>====
 
-
[[Image:Solution_2.png|500px]]<br>
 
-
Optical tweezers are powerful tool to measure force as small as pico- to nano- newton (''N''). Use of <br>
 
-
optical tweezers allows us to know the force generated from the rotational motion of ring-shaped <br>
 
-
microtubules. To detect the force we attach a polystyrene bead (~5 µm) to the top surface of the <br>
 
-
ring-shaped microtubule via biotin-streptavidin interaction. After capturing the bead by optical tweezers <br>
 
-
we determine the force of the ring-shaped microtubules from the displacement of the bead during<br>
 
-
the rotational motion.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 3</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Image:Solution_3.png| 480px]]<br><br>
 
-
To harness the power of rotating ring-shaped microtubules we prepare micrometer-sized synthetic gear.<br>
 
-
With the help of optical tweezers the synthetic gear is placed on the ring-shaped microtubule assemblies.<br>
 
-
For fixing the gear firmly with the rings a specific streptavidin-biotin interaction could be used. By<br>
 
-
arranging ring-shaped microtubules and gears properly we can amplify the power which then can be used for<br>
 
-
doing further work.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png|18px]]Advance<br>Solution 1+Solution 2+Solution 3</font>====
 
-
[[Image:Solution_advanced.png|500px]]<br>
 
-
Solutions discussed above collectively will have a big impact in making practical use of motor protein <br>
 
-
based biodevices.
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Background</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
Biomolecular motor system such as microtubule-kinesin is an example of smallest natural machine <br>
 
-
that can convert chemical energy obtained from ATP into mechanical work with high efficiency and<br>
 
-
specific power. Nowadays microtubule-kinesin system, one of the biomolecular motor system, is being<br>
 
-
used as a building block for constructing micro-actuators and driving unit of the biodevices. Kinesin<br>
 
-
converts chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP molecules into directed, stepwise motion <br>
 
-
along microtubule.</p>
 
-
[[Image:Motility_assay.png| 600px ]]
 
-
<p>
 
-
Our experimental system is the assembly of biotinylated microtubules cross-linked <br>
 
-
through the interaction of streptavidin via active transport on a kinesin-coated surface.This process <br>
 
-
is called dynamic self-organization and has been drawing much attention to integrate highly organized <br>
 
-
microtubule assemblies.<br>
 
-
Ring-shaped microtubule assemblies have been demonstrated to obtain through dynamic self-organization.<br>
 
-
Considering the advantage of its geometry and handedness, they have appeared to be a promising tool<br>
 
-
to harness continuous rotational motion without changing the position of its mass center.</p>
 
-
[[Image:DSA.png| 580px]]
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Problem</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
Although ring-shaped microtubules possess immense potential with respect to their prospective <br>
 
-
application in nanotechnology, several barriers needed to be surmounted yet as listed below.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.1</font>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_1.png| 415px]]<br>
 
-
In a closed system, consumption of energy spoils the potential activity of ring-shaped <br>
 
-
microtubules. Supply of energy through ATP hydrolysis is a prerequisite to keep the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules working continuously. Development of a system to provide energy continuously is <br>
 
-
highly desired.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.2</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_2.png| 380px]]<br>
 
-
It is still unknown how much power we can harness from the rotational motion of the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules. Once known, the power could be designed to use further in an appropriate way.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="3">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]No.3</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 
-
[[Image:Problem_3.png| 370px]]<br>
 
-
No system has been developed yet that can work by transmitting the power harnessed from<br>
 
-
ring-shaped microtubules. This drawback is preventing integration or amplification of the power<br>
 
-
of smallest natural machines.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
 
-
===[[Image:大見出し.png| 25px]]&nbsp;<font size="5">Solution</font>===
 
-
----
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 1</font><br>====
 
-
[[Image:Solution_1.png| 500px]]<br>
 
-
Ring-shaped microtubules are driven by kinesin where the energy comes from the hydrolysis<br>
 
-
of ATP to ADP. A system that can use the ADP to reproduce ATP allow us to keep the ring-shaped<br>
 
-
microtubules working continuously. To develop such a system, we synthesize micro gels <br>
 
-
which contain F1/F0- ATPase together with photosystems. This gel is termed as “Marimo-Gel”.<br>
 
-
The Marimo-Gel converts ADP to ATP by utilizing the energy from light.
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 2</font><br>====
 
-
[[Image:Solution_2.png|500px]]<br>
 
-
Optical tweezers are powerful tool to measure force as small as pico- to nano- newton (''N''). Use of <br>
 
-
optical tweezers allows us to know the force generated from the rotational motion of ring-shaped <br>
 
-
microtubules. To detect the force we attach a polystyrene bead (~5 µm) to the top surface of the <br>
 
-
ring-shaped microtubule via biotin-streptavidin interaction. After capturing the bead by optical tweezers <br>
 
-
we determine the force of the ring-shaped microtubules from the displacement of the bead during<br>
 
-
the rotational motion.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png| 18px]]Solution for the problem 3</font><br>====
 
-
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Image:Solution_3.png| 480px]]<br><br>
 
-
To harness the power of rotating ring-shaped microtubules we prepare micrometer-sized synthetic gear.<br>
 
-
With the help of optical tweezers the synthetic gear is placed on the ring-shaped microtubule assemblies.<br>
 
-
For fixing the gear firmly with the rings a specific streptavidin-biotin interaction could be used. By<br>
 
-
arranging ring-shaped microtubules and gears properly we can amplify the power which then can be used for<br>
 
-
doing further work.<br>
 
-
</p>
 
-
 
-
 
-
<p>
 
-
====<font size="4">[[Image:小見出し.png|18px]]Advance<br>Solution 1+Solution 2+Solution 3</font>====
 
-
[[Image:Advance2.png|500px]]<br>
 
-
Solutions discussed above collectively will have a big impact in making practical use of motor protein <br>
 
-
based biodevices.
 
-
</p>
 

Revision as of 10:41, 31 August 2013

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