20.109(F12) Pre-Proposal: Engineering Viral Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermic Cancer Therapy

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==Introduction==  
==Introduction==  
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The field of magnetic hyperthermia has attracted a lot of attention in the past thirty years as an alternative cancer therapy method.  Magnetic hyperthermia proposes the placement of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field. As the direction of the magnetic field alternates, MNPs undergo magnetic hysteresis losses that are dissipated to local surroundings as thermal energy. Targeted sites usually are heated to temperatures between 42 and 45 C to cause cell damage or death. A main challenge to this method is the localization of MNPs to targeted tumor cells. Historically, scientists have had issues concentrating MNPs within tumor cells to produce sufficient heat for complete apoptosis, inevitably leading to higher applied dosage of MNPs. This project aims to tackle this problem by introducing viral MNPs into magnetic hyperthermia. Viral MNP complexes consist of MNPs attached to viruses with minimal harmful effects to humans. While viral MNPs have been worked on for quite some time, their functions have been mostly limited to ''in vivo'' MRI imaging and targeted gene delivery. Using viral MNPs, our approach can potentially concentrate MNPs in targeted tumor cells, thereby achieving the level of heat necessary for effective cell apoptosis yet at the same time, lowering the minimum MNP dosage required for the treatment.
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The field of magnetic hyperthermia has attracted a lot of attention in the past thirty years as an alternative cancer therapy method.  Magnetic hyperthermia proposes the placement of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field. Nanoparticles often have unique physical and chemical properties that can be varied based on size and shape. MNPs are no different; these nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, gaining magnetic properties when a magnetic field is present.  As the direction of the magnetic field alternates, MNPs undergo magnetic hysteresis losses that are dissipated to local surroundings as thermal energy. Targeted sites usually are heated to temperatures between 42 and 45 C to cause cell damage or death. A main challenge to this method is the localization of MNPs to targeted tumor cells. Historically, scientists have had issues concentrating MNPs within tumor cells to produce sufficient heat for complete apoptosis, inevitably leading to higher applied dosage of MNPs. This project aims to tackle this problem by introducing viral MNPs into magnetic hyperthermia to increase the local concentration and thereby increase the heat generation.  
References: <font color = red> Please correct the references formatting </font>
References: <font color = red> Please correct the references formatting </font>

Revision as of 06:06, 29 November 2012

20.109(F12): Laboratory Fundamentals of Biological Engineering

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Contents

Investigators

  • Coyin Oh
  • Joanna Yeh
  • T/R
  • Green

Title of Proposed Project

20.109(F12) Pre-Proposal: Engineering viral magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermic cancer therapy

Project Summary

THREE SENTENCES ONLY.
The robot is summarising the project. Key words: magnetic nanoparticles, virus, hyperthermia.

Introduction

The field of magnetic hyperthermia has attracted a lot of attention in the past thirty years as an alternative cancer therapy method. Magnetic hyperthermia proposes the placement of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field. Nanoparticles often have unique physical and chemical properties that can be varied based on size and shape. MNPs are no different; these nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, gaining magnetic properties when a magnetic field is present. As the direction of the magnetic field alternates, MNPs undergo magnetic hysteresis losses that are dissipated to local surroundings as thermal energy. Targeted sites usually are heated to temperatures between 42 and 45 C to cause cell damage or death. A main challenge to this method is the localization of MNPs to targeted tumor cells. Historically, scientists have had issues concentrating MNPs within tumor cells to produce sufficient heat for complete apoptosis, inevitably leading to higher applied dosage of MNPs. This project aims to tackle this problem by introducing viral MNPs into magnetic hyperthermia to increase the local concentration and thereby increase the heat generation.

References: Please correct the references formatting

  1. A.J. Giustini, A.A. Petryk, S.M. Cassim, J.A. Tate, I. Baker, P.J. Hoopes. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia in cancer treatment. Nano LIFE. 01, 17 (2010). http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1793984410000067#citedBySection
  2. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer,

D. Ghosh, Y. Lee, S. Thomas, A. G. Kohli, D. S. Yun, A. M. Belcher, K. A. Kelly, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012, 7 (10), 677–82.

  1. Add more references as deem appropriate

Your idea

This project aims to use magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and phages to increase the efficacy of magnetic hyperthermia. The goal is the use viral MNP complexes consisting of MNPs attached to viruses with minimal harmful effects to humans. While viral MNPs have been worked on for quite some time, their functions have been mostly limited to in vivo MRI imaging and targeted gene delivery. Using viral MNPs, our approach can potentially concentrate MNPs in targeted tumor cells, thereby achieving the level of heat necessary for effective cell apoptosis yet at the same time, lowering the minimum MNP dosage required for the treatment.

TWO PARAGRAPHS

Ultimately, we would hope to collect results on whether viral MNPs are more effective in delivering MNPs to targeted cells compared to other MNPs.

TWO PARAGRAPHS Make clear what you see is the structural hole/gap in understanding or the need, and how you propose to fill in or satisfy what you've identified. You should specify your general approach (e.g. "will screen for mutants that enhance the contrast of the bacterial photography system") but do not need to think through the precise experimental details yet. Emphasize instead what results hope to collect and how they might improve the shortcomings that you've identified as interesting.


A sketch

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