BISC 219/2009:Glossary

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Current revision (12:02, 9 September 2009) (view source)
(Glossary)
 
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'''Cloning:'''has several different meanings.  You can clone and organism - make an identical copy.  You can clone a gene<br>
'''Cloning:'''has several different meanings.  You can clone and organism - make an identical copy.  You can clone a gene<br>
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'''Gene expression:'''<br>
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'''Gene expression:''' the conversion of the information coded in DNA into the structures in a cell.  Either the transcription of a gene into RNA and then RNA translated into protein  OR the transcription of a gene into RNA but not further processed.<br>
'''Marker:''' a gene or other sequence of DNA with a known location on a chromosome that can be monitored during crosses<br>
'''Marker:''' a gene or other sequence of DNA with a known location on a chromosome that can be monitored during crosses<br>
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'''Outcross:''' <br>
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'''Outcross:''' a way to introduce genetic variation into a line.  Often used after a mutant has been isolated to be sure that there is only one mutation causing a specific phenotype.  Crossing your mutant organism to wild type.<br>
'''Plasmid:''' a small circular piece of DNA propagated in bacteria that can be "easily" modified to carry specific genes of interest.<br>
'''Plasmid:''' a small circular piece of DNA propagated in bacteria that can be "easily" modified to carry specific genes of interest.<br>
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'''Reporter:''' <br>
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'''Reporter:''' a protein with specific distinguishing properties (usually visual) added to protein being studied in order to follow the protein of interest in a cell.  Common reporter proteins are GFP, green fluorescent protein, and β-galactosidase, encoded by the lacZ gene.<br>
'''Scoring:''' to examine and count individuals - to determine phenotype.<br>
'''Scoring:''' to examine and count individuals - to determine phenotype.<br>
'''Seeded:''' to add bacteria to a plate as worm food<br>
'''Seeded:''' to add bacteria to a plate as worm food<br>
'''Somatic:''' all cells except eggs and sperm<br>
'''Somatic:''' all cells except eggs and sperm<br>
'''Strain vs Species:''' A strain is a set of individuals of a particular genotype within a species with the capacity to produce more individuals of the same genotype.<br>
'''Strain vs Species:''' A strain is a set of individuals of a particular genotype within a species with the capacity to produce more individuals of the same genotype.<br>
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'''Testcross:''' <br>
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'''Testcross:''' crossing an individual expressing a dominant trait to an individual expressing the homozygous recessive trait to determine if the former individual is homozygous or heterozygous dominant.<br>
'''Totipotent:''' a cell in the undifferentiated state that has the ability to become any cell type.  Cells early in embryonic development are totipotent.
'''Totipotent:''' a cell in the undifferentiated state that has the ability to become any cell type.  Cells early in embryonic development are totipotent.
'''Vector:''' a sequence of DNA (often a plasmid) that can enter a living cell and signal its presence by conferring a specific property on the host cell (often antibiotic resistance or a visible trait like GFP fluorescence).  A vector has a means of replicating itself in the host cell.<br>
'''Vector:''' a sequence of DNA (often a plasmid) that can enter a living cell and signal its presence by conferring a specific property on the host cell (often antibiotic resistance or a visible trait like GFP fluorescence).  A vector has a means of replicating itself in the host cell.<br>

Current revision

Wellesley College BISC 219 Genetics

Glossary

This glossary is a work in progress. Please feel free to add terms here you would like defined or you think other students would find useful.

Cloning:has several different meanings. You can clone and organism - make an identical copy. You can clone a gene
Gene expression: the conversion of the information coded in DNA into the structures in a cell. Either the transcription of a gene into RNA and then RNA translated into protein OR the transcription of a gene into RNA but not further processed.
Marker: a gene or other sequence of DNA with a known location on a chromosome that can be monitored during crosses
Outcross: a way to introduce genetic variation into a line. Often used after a mutant has been isolated to be sure that there is only one mutation causing a specific phenotype. Crossing your mutant organism to wild type.
Plasmid: a small circular piece of DNA propagated in bacteria that can be "easily" modified to carry specific genes of interest.
Reporter: a protein with specific distinguishing properties (usually visual) added to protein being studied in order to follow the protein of interest in a cell. Common reporter proteins are GFP, green fluorescent protein, and β-galactosidase, encoded by the lacZ gene.
Scoring: to examine and count individuals - to determine phenotype.
Seeded: to add bacteria to a plate as worm food
Somatic: all cells except eggs and sperm
Strain vs Species: A strain is a set of individuals of a particular genotype within a species with the capacity to produce more individuals of the same genotype.
Testcross: crossing an individual expressing a dominant trait to an individual expressing the homozygous recessive trait to determine if the former individual is homozygous or heterozygous dominant.
Totipotent: a cell in the undifferentiated state that has the ability to become any cell type. Cells early in embryonic development are totipotent.

Vector: a sequence of DNA (often a plasmid) that can enter a living cell and signal its presence by conferring a specific property on the host cell (often antibiotic resistance or a visible trait like GFP fluorescence). A vector has a means of replicating itself in the host cell.
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