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A large number of parts have been made by the synthetic biology community. Many can be found as part of the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. These modular genetic components are designed to be easy to assemble to facilitate the building of more complex biological devices. To learn more about the Registry and BioBricks™, see last year's wiki page.

Synthetic biology relies on the ability to make testable biological units. This means that the ability to gather, manipulate, or even create genetic material is vital for "doing" synthetic biology. The techniques employed by synthetic biologists include oligonucleotide synthesis, restriction enzyme digestion, ligase, pcr, and recombination (homology).

Trying to get from genes to genomes.

DNA Synthesis

Oligonucleotide Synthesis

from wikipedia

Gene Synthesis

IDT Gene Blocks
invitrogen (life technologies, geneart)
OriGene (blue heron)
Epoch Life Science


Molecular Cloning

Restriction Enzyme

list of BioBrick Foundation Standards

Polymerase Chain Reaction

TOPO TA cloning (invitrogen)
SOE (splice by overlap extension) pcr



j5 from Nathan Hillson

-In-Fusion (Clontech) poxvirus DNA polymerase with 3′–5′ exonuclease activity
-In-Fusion BioBrick Assembly
-cold fusion (SBI)

-lambda red

-golden gate
-MoClo [1] -GoldenBraid


-SLIC sequence and ligation independent cloning T4 DNA polymerase (exonuclease)
-Gibson T5 exonuclease, Phusion polymerase, Taq ligase
-CPEC circular polymerase extension cloning

-SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) in vitro homologous recombination

-Fast Seamless Cloning (Dogene) -CloneEZ kit (Genescript) -GENEART


  • e coli
  • s. cerevisiae

Bacterial Mating



  1. Weber E, Engler C, Gruetzner R, Werner S, and Marillonnet S. . pmid:21364738. PubMed HubMed [Weber2011]

  2. Hughes RA, Miklos AE, and Ellington AD. . pmid:21601682. PubMed HubMed [Hughes2011]
    Gene Synthesis Review

  3. Werner S, Engler C, Weber E, Gruetzner R, and Marillonnet S. . pmid:22126803. PubMed HubMed [Werner2012]

  4. Sarrion-Perdigones A, Falconi EE, Zandalinas SI, Juárez P, Fernández-del-Carmen A, Granell A, and Orzaez D. . pmid:21750718. PubMed HubMed [SarrionPerdigones2011]

  5. Engler C, Kandzia R, and Marillonnet S. . pmid:18985154. PubMed HubMed [Engler2008]

  6. Quan J and Tian J. . pmid:19649325. PubMed HubMed [Quan2009]

  7. Gibson DG, Benders GA, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Denisova EA, Baden-Tillson H, Zaveri J, Stockwell TB, Brownley A, Thomas DW, Algire MA, Merryman C, Young L, Noskov VN, Glass JI, Venter JC, Hutchison CA 3rd, and Smith HO. . pmid:18218864. PubMed HubMed [Gibson2008]
  8. Gibson DG, Young L, Chuang RY, Venter JC, Hutchison CA 3rd, and Smith HO. . pmid:19363495. PubMed HubMed [Gibson2009]
    T5 exonuclease recombination

  9. Li MZ and Elledge SJ. . pmid:17293868. PubMed HubMed [Li2007]

  10. Li MZ and Elledge SJ. . pmid:22328425. PubMed HubMed [Li2012]

  11. Sleight SC, Bartley BA, Lieviant JA, and Sauro HM. . pmid:20385581. PubMed HubMed [Sleight2010]
    In-Fusion biobrick

  12. Zhu B, Cai G, Hall EO, and Freeman GJ. . pmid:17907578. PubMed HubMed [Zhu2007]

  13. Benoit RM, Wilhelm RN, Scherer-Becker D, and Ostermeier C. . pmid:16289702. PubMed HubMed [Benoit2006]

  14. Geu-Flores F, Nour-Eldin HH, Nielsen MT, and Halkier BA. . pmid:17389646. PubMed HubMed [GeuFlores2007]

  15. Gibson DG. . pmid:19745056. PubMed HubMed [Gibson2009-2]
    oligonucleotide assembly

  16. Horton RM, Cai ZL, Ho SN, and Pease LR. . pmid:2357375. PubMed HubMed [Horton2009]

  17. Czar MJ, Anderson JC, Bader JS, and Peccoud J. . pmid:19111926. PubMed HubMed [Czar2009]

  18. Stemmer WP, Crameri A, Ha KD, Brennan TM, and Heyneker HL. . pmid:7590320. PubMed HubMed [Stemmer1995]

  19. Aslanidis C and de Jong PJ. . pmid:2235490. PubMed HubMed [Aslanidis1990]

  20. Aslanidis C, de Jong PJ, and Schmitz G. . pmid:7580902. PubMed HubMed [Aslanidis1994]

  21. Li C and Evans RM. . pmid:9321675. PubMed HubMed [Li1997]

  22. Angrand PO, Daigle N, van der Hoeven F, Schöler HR, and Stewart AF. . pmid:10446259. PubMed HubMed [Angrand1999]
    lambda Red recombinase

  23. Hartley JL, Temple GF, and Brasch MA. . pmid:11076863. PubMed HubMed [Hartley2000]
    Gateway lambda Int

  24. Khalil AM, Julius JA, and Bachant J. . pmid:17702758. PubMed HubMed [Khalil2007]
    Gateway lambda Cre

  25. Larionov V, Kouprina N, Graves J, Chen XN, Korenberg JR, and Resnick MA. . pmid:8552668. PubMed HubMed [Larionov1996]
    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning

  26. j5 DNA Assembly Design Automation Software doi: 10.1021/sb2000116


  27. Gibson DG, Glass JI, Lartigue C, Noskov VN, Chuang RY, Algire MA, Benders GA, Montague MG, Ma L, Moodie MM, Merryman C, Vashee S, Krishnakumar R, Assad-Garcia N, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Denisova EA, Young L, Qi ZQ, Segall-Shapiro TH, Calvey CH, Parmar PP, Hutchison CA 3rd, Smith HO, and Venter JC. . pmid:20488990. PubMed HubMed [Gibson2010]
    genome replacement

  28. Li MZ and Elledge SJ. . pmid:15731760. PubMed HubMed [Li2005]
    MAGIC, bacterial mating approach

All Medline abstracts: PubMed HubMed
  1. Zhang2012 pmid=22241772


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