Escherichia coli/Nomenclature & Abbreviations

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*'''r<sub>B/K</sub><sup>+/-</sup>''' = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage.  The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the restriction system.
*'''r<sub>B/K</sub><sup>+/-</sup>''' = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage.  The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the restriction system.
*'''m<sub>B/K</sub><sup>+/-</sup>''' = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage.  The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the modification (methylation) system.  
*'''m<sub>B/K</sub><sup>+/-</sup>''' = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage.  The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the modification (methylation) system.  
-
*'''hsdS''' = Both restriction and methylation of certain sequences is deleted from the strain.  If you transform DNA from such a strain into a wild type strain, it will be degraded.
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:hsdS|hsdS]]''' = Both restriction and methylation of certain sequences is deleted from the strain.  If you transform DNA from such a strain into a wild type strain, it will be degraded.
-
*'''hsdR''' = For efficient transformation of cloned unmethylated DNA from PCR amplifications
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:hsdR|hsdR]]''' = For efficient transformation of cloned unmethylated DNA from PCR amplifications
*'''INV( )''' = chromosomal inversion between locations indicated
*'''INV( )''' = chromosomal inversion between locations indicated
-
*'''ahpC''' = mutation to alkyl hydroperoxide reductase conferring disulfide reductase activity
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:ahpC|ahpC]]''' = mutation to alkyl hydroperoxide reductase conferring disulfide reductase activity
*'''ara-14''' = cannot metabolize arabinose
*'''ara-14''' = cannot metabolize arabinose
-
*'''araD''' = mutation in L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase blocks arabinose metabolism
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:araD|araD]]''' = mutation in L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase blocks arabinose metabolism
-
*'''cycA''' = mutation in alanine transporter; cannot use alanine as a carbon source
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:cycA|cycA]]''' = mutation in alanine transporter; cannot use alanine as a carbon source
-
*'''dapD''' = mutation in succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase leads to succinate or (lysine + methionine) requirement
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:dapD|dapD]]''' = mutation in succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase leads to succinate or (lysine + methionine) requirement
*'''&Delta;( )''' = chromosomal deletion of genes between the listed genes (may include unlisted genes!)
*'''&Delta;( )''' = chromosomal deletion of genes between the listed genes (may include unlisted genes!)
-
*'''dam''' = adenine methylation at GATC sequences abolished; high recombination efficiency; DNA repair turned on
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:dam|dam]]''' = adenine methylation at GATC sequences exist; high recombination efficiency; DNA repair turned on
-
*'''dcm''' = cytosine methylation at second C of CCWGG sites abolished
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:dcm|dcm]]''' = cytosine methylation at second C of CCWGG sites exist. dam & dcm are the default properties and always elided, while dam<sup>-</sup> or dcm<sup>-</sup> should be declare explicitly
-
*'''deoR''' = regulatory gene that allows constitutive expression of deoxyribose synthesis genes; permits uptake of large plasmids.  See Hanahan D, [http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&r=1&l=50&f=G&d=PALL&s1=4851348.WKU.&OS=PN/4851348&RS=PN/4851348 US Patent 4,851,348].
+
*'''[http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/Products-and-Services/Applications/Cloning/Transformation/expression-competent-cells.html DE3]''' = Lysogen that encodes T7 RNA polymerase. Used to induce expression in T7-driven expression systems
-
*'''dnaJ''' = one of the chaparonins inactivated; stabilizes some mutant proteins
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:deoR|deoR]]''' = regulatory gene that allows constitutive expression of deoxyribose synthesis genes; permits uptake of large plasmids.  See Hanahan D, [http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&r=1&l=50&f=G&d=PALL&s1=4851348.WKU.&OS=PN/4851348&RS=PN/4851348 US Patent 4,851,348].  ***This has been called into question, as the DH10B genome sequence revealed that it is deoR<sup>+</sup>.  See Durfee08, PMID 18245285.
-
*'''dut1''' = dUTPase activity abolished, leading to increased dUTP concentrations, allowing uracil instead of thymine incorporation in DNA.  Stable U incorporation requires ung gene mutation as well.
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:dnaJ|dnaJ]]''' = one of the chaparonins inactivated; stabilizes some mutant proteins
-
*'''endA1''' = For cleaner preparations of DNA and better results in downstream applications due to the elimination of non-specific digestion by Endonuclease I
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:dut|dut]]1''' = dUTPase activity abolished, leading to increased dUTP concentrations, allowing uracil instead of thymine incorporation in DNA.  Stable U incorporation requires ung gene mutation as well.
 +
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:endA|endA1]]''' = For cleaner preparations of DNA and better results in downstream applications due to the elimination of non-specific digestion by Endonuclease I
*'''(e14)''' = excisable prophage like element containing mcrA gene; present in K-12 but missing in many other strains
*'''(e14)''' = excisable prophage like element containing mcrA gene; present in K-12 but missing in many other strains
-
*'''galE''' = mutations are associated with high competence and increased resistance to phage P1 infection.  galE mutations result in truncation of LPS glycans to the minimal, "inner core".  The exceptional competence of DH10B/TOP10 is thought to be a result of a reduced interference from LPS in the binding and/or uptake of transforming DNA.  galE15 is a point mutation resulting in a Ser123 -> Phe conversion near the enzyme's active site.   --[[User:Dcekiert|Dcekiert]] 16:56, 23 January 2008 (CST)
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:galE|galE]]''' = mutations are associated with high competence, increased resistance to phage P1 infection, and 2-deoxygalactose resistance.  galE mutations block the production of UDP-galactose, resulting in truncation of LPS glycans to the minimal, "inner core".  The exceptional competence of DH10B/TOP10 is thought to be a result of a reduced interference from LPS in the binding and/or uptake of transforming DNA.  galE15 is a point mutation resulting in a Ser123 -> Phe conversion near the enzyme's active site. See van Die, et al. PMID 6373734, Hanahan, et al. PMID 1943786, and EcoSal ISBN 1555811647.  --[[User:Dcekiert|Dcekiert]] 16:56, 23 January 2008 (CST)
-
*'''galK/U''' = cannot metabolize galactose.  galK16 is an IS2 insertion ~170bp downstream of the galK start codon.
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:galK|galk]]''' = mutants cannot metabolize galactose and are resistant to 2-deoxygalactose.  galK16 is an IS2 insertion ~170bp downstream of the galK start codon. See EcoSal ISBN 1555811647.  --[[User:Dcekiert|Dcekiert]] 16:56, 23 January 2008 (CST)
-
*'''gor''' = mutation in glutathione reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:galU|galU]]''' = mutants cannot metabolize galactose
-
*'''glnV'''  = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of glutamine; required for some phage growth
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:gor|gor]]''' = mutation in glutathione reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation
-
*'''gyrA96''' = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys nalidixic acid resistance
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:glnV|glnV]]'''  = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of glutamine; required for some phage growth
 +
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:gyrA|gyrA96]]''' = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys nalidixic acid resistance
*'''gyrA462''' = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys resistance to ccdB colicin gene product
*'''gyrA462''' = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys resistance to ccdB colicin gene product
*'''hflA150''' = protease mutation stabilizing phage cII protein;  high frequency of lysogenization by &lambda;
*'''hflA150''' = protease mutation stabilizing phage cII protein;  high frequency of lysogenization by &lambda;
-
*'''&Delta;(lac)X74''' = Deletion of the entire ''lac'' operon as well as some flanking DNA.
+
*'''&Delta;(lac)X74''' = Deletion of the entire ''lac'' operon as well as some flanking DNA (complete deletion is &Delta;cod-mhpF; see Mol.Micro., 6:1335, and J.Bact., 179:2573)
*'''lacI<sup>q</sup>''' or '''lacI<sup>Q</sup>''' = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; -35 site in promoter upstream of ''lacI'' is mutated from GCGCAA to GTGCAA
*'''lacI<sup>q</sup>''' or '''lacI<sup>Q</sup>''' = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; -35 site in promoter upstream of ''lacI'' is mutated from GCGCAA to GTGCAA
*'''lacI<sup>Q1</sup>'''  = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; contains a 15 bp deletion to create optimal -35 site in promoter upstream of ''lacI''
*'''lacI<sup>Q1</sup>'''  = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; contains a 15 bp deletion to create optimal -35 site in promoter upstream of ''lacI''
*'''lacY''' = deficient in lactose transport; deletion of lactose permease (M protein)
*'''lacY''' = deficient in lactose transport; deletion of lactose permease (M protein)
*'''lacZ&Delta;M15''' = partial deletion of the lacZ gene that allows &alpha; complementation of the &beta;-galactosidase gene; required for blue/white selection on XGal plates.  Deletes the amino portion of lacZ (aa 11-41).
*'''lacZ&Delta;M15''' = partial deletion of the lacZ gene that allows &alpha; complementation of the &beta;-galactosidase gene; required for blue/white selection on XGal plates.  Deletes the amino portion of lacZ (aa 11-41).
-
*'''leuB''' = requires leucine
+
* '''LAM-''' or '''λ-''' = lambda lysogen deletion; approximate map location: 17.40; information from [http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/Mutation.php?ID=4499 CGSC] *'''[[User:Karmella Haynes|---Karmella]] 13:02, 21 October 2012 (EDT)''':
-
*'''&Delta;lon''' =  deletion of the lon protease
+
* '''LamR''' = mutation in malT1 conferring lambda resistance; synonym malT1(LamR) [http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/Mutation.php?ID=4749] *'''[[User:Karmella Haynes|---Karmella]] 13:35, 21 October 2012 (EDT)''':
-
*'''malA''' = cannot metabolize maltose
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:leuB|leuB]]''' = requires leucine
-
*'''mcrA''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence C<sup>m</sup>CGG (possibly <sup>m</sup>CG).  Carried on the e14 prophage (q.v.)
+
*'''&Delta;[[Ecoliwiki:lon|lon]]''' =  deletion of the lon protease
-
*'''mcrB''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence R<sup>m</sup>C
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:malA|malA]]''' = cannot metabolize maltose
-
*'''metB''' = requires methionine
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:mcrA|mcrA]]''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence C<sup>m</sup>CGG (possibly <sup>m</sup>CG).  Carried on the e14 prophage (q.v.)
-
*'''metC''' = requires methionine
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:mcrB|mcrB]]''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence R<sup>m</sup>C
-
*'''mrr''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence C<sup>m</sup>AG or G<sup>m</sup>AC
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:metB|metB]]''' = requires methionine
 +
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:metC|metC]]''' = requires methionine
 +
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:mrr|mrr]]''' = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence C<sup>m</sup>AG or G<sup>m</sup>AC
*'''mtlA''' = cannot metabilize mannitol
*'''mtlA''' = cannot metabilize mannitol
*'''(Mu)''' = Mu prophage present.  Mu&delta; means the phage is defective.
*'''(Mu)''' = Mu prophage present.  Mu&delta; means the phage is defective.
-
*'''mutS''' - mutation inhibits DNA repair of mismatches in unmethylated newly synthesized strands
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:mutS|mutS]]''' - mutation inhibits DNA repair of mismatches in unmethylated newly synthesized strands
-
*'''nupG''' = same as deoR
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:nupG|nupG]]''' = same as [[Ecoliwiki:deoR|deoR]]
-
*'''ompT''' = mutation in outer membrane protein protease VII, reducing proteolysis of expressed proteins
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:ompT|ompT]]''' = mutation in outer membrane protein protease VII, reducing proteolysis of expressed proteins
*'''(P1)''' = Cell carries a P1 prophage.  Cells express the P1 restriction system.
*'''(P1)''' = Cell carries a P1 prophage.  Cells express the P1 restriction system.
*'''(P2)''' = Cell carries a P2 prophage.  Allows selection against Red+ Gam+ &lambda;
*'''(P2)''' = Cell carries a P2 prophage.  Allows selection against Red+ Gam+ &lambda;
-
*'''(&phi;80)''' = Cell carries the lambdoid prophage &phi;80.  A defective version of this phage carrying lacZM15 deletion (as well as lacIq, lacYA, and flanking sequences) is present in some strains.  The &phi;80 attachment site is just adjacent to tonB.
+
*'''(&phi;80)''' = Cell carries the lambdoid prophage &phi;80.  A defective version of this phage carrying lacZM15 deletion (as well as wild-type lacI, lacYA, and flanking sequences) is present in some strains.  The &phi;80 attachment site is just adjacent to tonB.
-
*'''pLysS''' = contains pLysS plasmid carrying chloramphenicol resistance and phage T7 lysozyme, effective at attenuating activity of T7 RNA polymerase, for better inhibition of expression under non-induced conditions.  The sequence can be found [http://www.emdbiosciences.com/docs/NDIS/69659-000.HTML here].
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:pLysS|pLysS]]''' = contains pLysS plasmid carrying chloramphenicol resistance and phage T7 lysozyme, effective at attenuating activity of T7 RNA polymerase, for better inhibition of expression under non-induced conditions.  The sequence can be found [http://www.emdbiosciences.com/docs/NDIS/69659-000.HTML here].
*'''proA/B''' = requires proline
*'''proA/B''' = requires proline
*'''recA1''' = For reduced occurrence of unwanted recombination in cloned DNA; cells UV sensitive, deficient in DNA repair
*'''recA1''' = For reduced occurrence of unwanted recombination in cloned DNA; cells UV sensitive, deficient in DNA repair
*'''recA13''' = as for recA1, but inserts less stable.
*'''recA13''' = as for recA1, but inserts less stable.
-
*'''recBCD''' = Exonuclease V; mutation in RecB or RecC reduces general recombination by a factor of 100; impaired DNA repair; UV sensitive, easier propagation of inverted repeats
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:recBCD|recBCD]]''' = Exonuclease V; mutation in RecB or RecC reduces general recombination by a factor of 100; impaired DNA repair; UV sensitive, easier propagation of inverted repeats
-
*'''recJ''' Exonuclease involved in alternate recombination
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:recJ|recJ]]''' Exonuclease involved in alternate recombination
-
*'''relA''' = relaxed phenotype; permits RNA synthesis in absence of protein synthesis
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:relA|relA]]''' = relaxed phenotype; permits RNA synthesis in absence of protein synthesis
-
*'''rha''' = blocked rhamose metabolism
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:rha|rha]]''' = blocked rhamose metabolism
-
*'''rnc''' = encodes RnaseIII (rnc-14 is a common null mutant)
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:rnc|rnc]]''' = encodes RnaseIII (rnc-14 is a common null mutant)
-
*'''rne''' = encodes RnaseE (rne-3071 is a common temperature sensitive mutant)
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:rne|rne]]''' = encodes RnaseE (rne-3071 is a common temperature sensitive mutant)
-
*'''rpsL''' =  mutation in ribosomal protein S12 conveying streptomycin resistance; also called strA
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:rpsL|rpsL]]''' =  mutation in ribosomal protein S12 conveying streptomycin resistance; also called strA, rpsL135(strR), strA135 [http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/Mutation.php?ID=5280] *'''[[User:Karmella Haynes|---Karmella]] 13:27, 21 October 2012 (EDT)''':
*'''sbcBC''' = ExoI activity abolished; usually present in recBC strains; recombination proficient, stable inverted repeats
*'''sbcBC''' = ExoI activity abolished; usually present in recBC strains; recombination proficient, stable inverted repeats
-
*'''srl''' = cannot metabolize sorbitol
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:srl|sr1]]''' = cannot metabolize sorbitol
-
*'''supE''' = glnV
+
*'''supE''' = [[Ecoliwiki:glnV|glnV]]
-
*'''supF''' = tyrT
+
*'''supF''' = [[Ecoliwiki:tyrT|tyrT]]
-
*'''thi''' = requires thiamine
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:thi|thi]]''' = requires thiamine
-
*'''thyA''' = requires thymidine
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:thyA|thyA]]''' = requires thymidine
*'''Tn10''' = transposon normally carrying Tetracycline resistance
*'''Tn10''' = transposon normally carrying Tetracycline resistance
*'''Tn5''' = transposon normally carrying Kanamycin resistance
*'''Tn5''' = transposon normally carrying Kanamycin resistance
-
*'''tonA''' = Mutation in outer membrane protein conveying resistance to phage T1 and phage T5
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:tonA|tonA]]''' = Mutation in outer membrane protein conveying resistance to phage T1 and phage T5
-
*'''traD''' = Mutation eliminating transfer factor; prevents transfer of F plasmid
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:traD|traD]]''' = Mutation eliminating transfer factor; prevents transfer of F plasmid
-
*'''trxB''' = mutation in thioredoxin reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation in the cytoplasm
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:trxB|trxB]]''' = mutation in thioredoxin reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation in the cytoplasm
-
*'''tsx''' = outer membrane protein mutation conveying resistance to phage T6 and colicin K
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:tsx|tsx]]''' = outer membrane protein mutation conveying resistance to phage T6 and colicin K
-
*'''tyrT''' = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of tyrosine; needed for some phage infection such as &lambda;gt11.
+
*'''[[Ecoliwiki:tyrT|tyrT]]''' = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of tyrosine; needed for some phage infection such as &lambda;gt11.
*'''ung1''' = allows uracil to exist in plasmid DNA
*'''ung1''' = allows uracil to exist in plasmid DNA
*'''xyl-5''' = blocked xylose metabolism
*'''xyl-5''' = blocked xylose metabolism

Current revision

A listed gene name means that gene carries a loss of function mutation, a Δ preceding a gene name means the gene is deleted. If a gene is not listed, it is not known to be mutated. Prophages present in wt K-12 strains (F, λ, e14, rac) are listed only if absent. E. coli B strains are naturally lon- and dcm-.

  • F- = Does not carry the F plasmid
  • F+ = Carries the F plasmid. The cell is able to mate with F- through conjugation.
  • F'[ ] = Carries an F plasmid that has host chromosomal genes on it from a previous recombination event. This cell can also mate with F- through conjugation. Chromosomal genes carried in the F plasmid are listed in brackets.
  • rB/K+/- = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage. The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the restriction system.
  • mB/K+/- = The (B/K) defines the strain lineage. The +/- indicates whether the strain has or hasn't got the modification (methylation) system.
  • hsdS = Both restriction and methylation of certain sequences is deleted from the strain. If you transform DNA from such a strain into a wild type strain, it will be degraded.
  • hsdR = For efficient transformation of cloned unmethylated DNA from PCR amplifications
  • INV( ) = chromosomal inversion between locations indicated
  • ahpC = mutation to alkyl hydroperoxide reductase conferring disulfide reductase activity
  • ara-14 = cannot metabolize arabinose
  • araD = mutation in L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase blocks arabinose metabolism
  • cycA = mutation in alanine transporter; cannot use alanine as a carbon source
  • dapD = mutation in succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase leads to succinate or (lysine + methionine) requirement
  • Δ( ) = chromosomal deletion of genes between the listed genes (may include unlisted genes!)
  • dam = adenine methylation at GATC sequences exist; high recombination efficiency; DNA repair turned on
  • dcm = cytosine methylation at second C of CCWGG sites exist. dam & dcm are the default properties and always elided, while dam- or dcm- should be declare explicitly
  • DE3 = Lysogen that encodes T7 RNA polymerase. Used to induce expression in T7-driven expression systems
  • deoR = regulatory gene that allows constitutive expression of deoxyribose synthesis genes; permits uptake of large plasmids. See Hanahan D, US Patent 4,851,348. ***This has been called into question, as the DH10B genome sequence revealed that it is deoR+. See Durfee08, PMID 18245285.
  • dnaJ = one of the chaparonins inactivated; stabilizes some mutant proteins
  • dut1 = dUTPase activity abolished, leading to increased dUTP concentrations, allowing uracil instead of thymine incorporation in DNA. Stable U incorporation requires ung gene mutation as well.
  • endA1 = For cleaner preparations of DNA and better results in downstream applications due to the elimination of non-specific digestion by Endonuclease I
  • (e14) = excisable prophage like element containing mcrA gene; present in K-12 but missing in many other strains
  • galE = mutations are associated with high competence, increased resistance to phage P1 infection, and 2-deoxygalactose resistance. galE mutations block the production of UDP-galactose, resulting in truncation of LPS glycans to the minimal, "inner core". The exceptional competence of DH10B/TOP10 is thought to be a result of a reduced interference from LPS in the binding and/or uptake of transforming DNA. galE15 is a point mutation resulting in a Ser123 -> Phe conversion near the enzyme's active site. See van Die, et al. PMID 6373734, Hanahan, et al. PMID 1943786, and EcoSal ISBN 1555811647. --Dcekiert 16:56, 23 January 2008 (CST)
  • galk = mutants cannot metabolize galactose and are resistant to 2-deoxygalactose. galK16 is an IS2 insertion ~170bp downstream of the galK start codon. See EcoSal ISBN 1555811647. --Dcekiert 16:56, 23 January 2008 (CST)
  • galU = mutants cannot metabolize galactose
  • gor = mutation in glutathione reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation
  • glnV = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of glutamine; required for some phage growth
  • gyrA96 = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys nalidixic acid resistance
  • gyrA462 = mutation in DNA gyrase; conveys resistance to ccdB colicin gene product
  • hflA150 = protease mutation stabilizing phage cII protein; high frequency of lysogenization by λ
  • Δ(lac)X74 = Deletion of the entire lac operon as well as some flanking DNA (complete deletion is Δcod-mhpF; see Mol.Micro., 6:1335, and J.Bact., 179:2573)
  • lacIq or lacIQ = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; -35 site in promoter upstream of lacI is mutated from GCGCAA to GTGCAA
  • lacIQ1 = overproduction of the lac repressor protein; contains a 15 bp deletion to create optimal -35 site in promoter upstream of lacI
  • lacY = deficient in lactose transport; deletion of lactose permease (M protein)
  • lacZΔM15 = partial deletion of the lacZ gene that allows α complementation of the β-galactosidase gene; required for blue/white selection on XGal plates. Deletes the amino portion of lacZ (aa 11-41).
  • LAM- or λ- = lambda lysogen deletion; approximate map location: 17.40; information from CGSC *---Karmella 13:02, 21 October 2012 (EDT):
  • LamR = mutation in malT1 conferring lambda resistance; synonym malT1(LamR) [1] *---Karmella 13:35, 21 October 2012 (EDT):
  • leuB = requires leucine
  • Δlon = deletion of the lon protease
  • malA = cannot metabolize maltose
  • mcrA = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence CmCGG (possibly mCG). Carried on the e14 prophage (q.v.)
  • mcrB = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence RmC
  • metB = requires methionine
  • metC = requires methionine
  • mrr = Mutation eliminating restriction of DNA methylated at the sequence CmAG or GmAC
  • mtlA = cannot metabilize mannitol
  • (Mu) = Mu prophage present. Muδ means the phage is defective.
  • mutS - mutation inhibits DNA repair of mismatches in unmethylated newly synthesized strands
  • nupG = same as deoR
  • ompT = mutation in outer membrane protein protease VII, reducing proteolysis of expressed proteins
  • (P1) = Cell carries a P1 prophage. Cells express the P1 restriction system.
  • (P2) = Cell carries a P2 prophage. Allows selection against Red+ Gam+ λ
  • (φ80) = Cell carries the lambdoid prophage φ80. A defective version of this phage carrying lacZM15 deletion (as well as wild-type lacI, lacYA, and flanking sequences) is present in some strains. The φ80 attachment site is just adjacent to tonB.
  • pLysS = contains pLysS plasmid carrying chloramphenicol resistance and phage T7 lysozyme, effective at attenuating activity of T7 RNA polymerase, for better inhibition of expression under non-induced conditions. The sequence can be found here.
  • proA/B = requires proline
  • recA1 = For reduced occurrence of unwanted recombination in cloned DNA; cells UV sensitive, deficient in DNA repair
  • recA13 = as for recA1, but inserts less stable.
  • recBCD = Exonuclease V; mutation in RecB or RecC reduces general recombination by a factor of 100; impaired DNA repair; UV sensitive, easier propagation of inverted repeats
  • recJ Exonuclease involved in alternate recombination
  • relA = relaxed phenotype; permits RNA synthesis in absence of protein synthesis
  • rha = blocked rhamose metabolism
  • rnc = encodes RnaseIII (rnc-14 is a common null mutant)
  • rne = encodes RnaseE (rne-3071 is a common temperature sensitive mutant)
  • rpsL = mutation in ribosomal protein S12 conveying streptomycin resistance; also called strA, rpsL135(strR), strA135 [2] *---Karmella 13:27, 21 October 2012 (EDT):
  • sbcBC = ExoI activity abolished; usually present in recBC strains; recombination proficient, stable inverted repeats
  • sr1 = cannot metabolize sorbitol
  • supE = glnV
  • supF = tyrT
  • thi = requires thiamine
  • thyA = requires thymidine
  • Tn10 = transposon normally carrying Tetracycline resistance
  • Tn5 = transposon normally carrying Kanamycin resistance
  • tonA = Mutation in outer membrane protein conveying resistance to phage T1 and phage T5
  • traD = Mutation eliminating transfer factor; prevents transfer of F plasmid
  • trxB = mutation in thioredoxin reductase; enhances disulphide bond formation in the cytoplasm
  • tsx = outer membrane protein mutation conveying resistance to phage T6 and colicin K
  • tyrT = suppression of amber (UAG) stop codons by insertion of tyrosine; needed for some phage infection such as λgt11.
  • ung1 = allows uracil to exist in plasmid DNA
  • xyl-5 = blocked xylose metabolism
  • SmR = Streptomycin resistance
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