IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date

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<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Fabrication|Fabrication]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Fabrication|Fabrication]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Testing|Testing]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Testing|Testing]]</li>
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<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/DataAnalysis|DataAnalysis]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Validation|Validation]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Validation|Validation]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Notes|Notes]]</li>
<li>[[IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Cell By Date/Notes|Notes]]</li>
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== Motivations ==
 
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A 'cold chain' refers to the temperature maintenance of the supply chain of sensitive products. Cold chains are
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Introduction:
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The hamburger has become synonymous with modern western culture.  We see in fast food chains such as McDonalds and Burger King, in ready made form at supermarkets and at most home barbeques where they have been made from scratch using ground beef.  But who controls the quality of our burgers, who insures that the burgers we eat don’t spoil the fun and make us sick?
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A break in the cold could compromise the efficacy and integrity of an entire product batch, resulting in direct consequences to the consumer.
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A lot of work has been carried out to study the spoilage of the beef that make up our burgers in fact there are professional organisation such as the FDA and HACCAP which aim to ensure the quality of beef that our industries produce.  We can see this in our supermarkets in the form of a printed ‘sell by date’, which is based upon challenge testing a process in which beef is put through numerous temperature scenarios and then a prediction is made about how long the beef will last when it has left the factory.  Due to safety constraints this prediction often means that the printed sell by date indicates that the beef is off when in may in fact have a few days left.  To improve on this other efforts have been made by industry.
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In addition to ‘sell by dates’ Industry has look into other ways of predicting when meat is spoiled.  One particular technology is a family of devices called temperature time integrators TTIs.  These devices try to monitor the thermal exposure of the food and when a certain level of exposure is reached a change occours, usually visual, which signals that the beef has gone off.
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Traditionally, the temperature range of a cold chain is between +2ºC to +8ºC - 'potentially hazardous' foods are defined by the Food Standards Agency as the
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This project is concerned with the development of a TTIs that is based upon synthetic biology components : exploiting the thermal dependence of gene expression of simple reporter system in a cell free extract.
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“Cold Chain Maintenance” is a term
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defined as the materials, equipment
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and procedures used to maintain
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temperatures between +2ºC to
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+8ºC while in transit throughout the
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distribution and storage process
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for vaccines
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A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range. Cold chains are common in the food and pharmaceutical industries and also some chemical shipments. One common temperature range for a cold chain in pharmaceutical industries is 2 to 8 °C. but the specific temperature (and time at temperature) tolerances depend on the actual product being shipped.
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This is important in the supply of vaccines to distant clinics in hot climates served by poorly developed transport networks. Disruption of a cold chain due to war may produce consequences similar to the Smallpox outbreaks in the Philippines during the Spanish-American war.
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Traditionally all historical stability data developed for vaccines was based on the temperature range of 2-8 C. With recent development of biological products by former vaccine developers, biologics has fallen into the same category of storage at 2-8 C due to the nature of the products and the lack of testing these products at wider storage conditions.
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Traditionally the industry believed that the cold chain process could not be validated. With the proper understanding of the entire process, this process is validateable. Please see PDA Technical Report # 39 for a rough summary of how this process can be validated.
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== Project Summary ==
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== Achievements ==
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== Progress at a Glance ==
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Current revision

Cell by Date



Introduction:

The hamburger has become synonymous with modern western culture. We see in fast food chains such as McDonalds and Burger King, in ready made form at supermarkets and at most home barbeques where they have been made from scratch using ground beef. But who controls the quality of our burgers, who insures that the burgers we eat don’t spoil the fun and make us sick?

A lot of work has been carried out to study the spoilage of the beef that make up our burgers in fact there are professional organisation such as the FDA and HACCAP which aim to ensure the quality of beef that our industries produce. We can see this in our supermarkets in the form of a printed ‘sell by date’, which is based upon challenge testing a process in which beef is put through numerous temperature scenarios and then a prediction is made about how long the beef will last when it has left the factory. Due to safety constraints this prediction often means that the printed sell by date indicates that the beef is off when in may in fact have a few days left. To improve on this other efforts have been made by industry.

In addition to ‘sell by dates’ Industry has look into other ways of predicting when meat is spoiled. One particular technology is a family of devices called temperature time integrators TTIs. These devices try to monitor the thermal exposure of the food and when a certain level of exposure is reached a change occours, usually visual, which signals that the beef has gone off.

This project is concerned with the development of a TTIs that is based upon synthetic biology components : exploiting the thermal dependence of gene expression of simple reporter system in a cell free extract.

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