IGEM:MIT/2007/Heavy Metals

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Contents

Reviews

  • A Good Overview (though slightly back-dated): Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soil by trace metals [1]
  • A summary of Pollutants from the EPA [2]
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  2. Error fetching PMID 12413663: [Valls02]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed HubMed


Cadmium

Summary

  • Cd causes damage to cells primarily by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes single-strand DNA damage and disrupts the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Cd is also an inhibitor of the DNA mismatch repair system…Results of this study confirmed that Cd toxicity caused profound changes in gene expression in which several stress response systems were induced simultaneously.
  • known carcinogen
  • Most recent(June06) paper on e.coli bioaccumulation of Cd
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Contamination Levels/Limits

  • MCL(Maximum Containment Level): 5 ppb
  • MCLG(Maximum Containment Level Goal): 5 ppb
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All Medline abstracts: PubMed HubMed


Cadmium Contamination Sites

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Plachimada, India: [3]
    • statistics on Pb, Cd, Cr levels in well water surrounding a Coca-Cola plant (2006)
    • pictures too :)


Promoters

Pubmed: Plasmid pI258 (from S.aureus) cadmium resistance (cadA) gene, complete cds [4]

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  • Brocklehurst - contains sequence for ZntR/CadR and PzntA/PcadA
    • Semmie's article on CadC linked with GFP [5]

Mercury

  • MCL: 2 ppb
  • MCLG: 2 ppb
  • 20 ppb makes the fish mercury buildup significant


  • Polluted sites
    • Onondaga lake [6] [7] [8]
    • Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge [9]


  • Detection (to assess our system):


  • Promoter
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  1. Error fetching PMID 1328156: [Hamlett92]
  2. Error fetching PMID 1312997: [Park92]
  3. Error fetching PMID 1334070: [Condee92]
  4. Error fetching PMID 4092936: [Gambill85]
  5. Error fetching PMID 11094290: [Hansen00]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed HubMed
  • Condee - Contains sequence for merO/P region
  • Hansen - Plasmid with Pmer, MerR, and reporter (lux, lac, or gfp) tested in e.coli

Current Industry Filtration Techniques

Mercury: approved by EPA - Coagulation/Filtration; Granular Activated Carbon; Lime softening; Reverse osmosis.

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