Kafatos:George K. Christophides

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(Research Interests)
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== [[Kafatos:Research|Research Interests]] ==
== [[Kafatos:Research|Research Interests]] ==
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<blockquote>Before my appointment by [http://www.imperial.ac.uk/ Imperial College London] in June 2005, I was at the [http://www.embl.de/ European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)], in Heidelberg, Germany. There, I worked in the laboratory of [[Kafatos:Fotis C. Kafatos|Prof. Fotis C. Kafatos]] and I was centrally involved in genomic and post genomic research of the malaria mosquito ''Anopheles gambiae'': sequencing of the ''A. gambiae'' genome and its comparative analysis with the genome of ''Drosophila melanogaster'', specifically focusing on the comparative genomics of the innate immune system. I was also involved in the establishment of the DNA microarray technology at EMBL, and by using this technology I developed together with my colleague [http://faculty.jhsph.edu/?F=George&L=Dimopoulos Dr George Dimopoulos] the first DNA microarray for ''A. gambiae''. This microarray was used as a pathfinder to explore the mosquito immune system and detect mechanisms of refractoriness to malaria infection. In December 2003, I was elected a Staff Scientist, the first level of the EMBL research faculty, by the EMBL Senior Scientist Committee. In this new role, and in affiliation with the laboratory of [[Kafatos:Fotis C. Kafatos|Prof Kafatos]], I led a research team that focused on the development and exploitation of functional genomic tools towards better understanding of the immune system of ''A. gambiae'' and its role in malaria infection.<br><br>
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<blockquote>My research focuses on infectious diseases, especially insect-borne. I am particularly interested on the interactions between the innate immune system of disease vectors and pathogens. Among the three leading global infectious diseases is malaria (others are AIDS and TB) that threatens almost half of the global population, infects over 400 million people every year and kills 1-3 million people, mostly young children in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, transmitted between humans through Anopheles mosquitoes. To study the interactions between vectors and pathogens, we use genomics, functional genomics technologies and reverse genetics, combined together in a systems biology approach. Below are some of our recent scientific discoveries and future directions.<br><br>
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The first functional genomic tool that we developed was a new EST microarray platform (MMC1) comprising 20,000 elements <cite>dimopoulos2002</cite>. At that time, MMC1 was the most advanced ''A. gambiae'' microarray platform encompassing approximately 9,000 unique genomic sequences. It was used by us and in collaboration with members of the Kafatos laboratory and external collaborators to study various aspects of the ''Anopheles'' biology, such as developmental and spatial gene expression, immune transcriptional networks, mosquito midgut responses to ''Plasmodium'' invasion, mosquito responses to viral infections and insecticide resistance. Since many MMC1 ESTs did not correspond to predicted genes in the ''A. gambiae'' genome, we provide functional bioinformatics annotation to these ESTs and show that at least 3,000 EST contigs likely correspond to currently non-predicted genes. One of the key discoveries deriving from our transcriptomic studies was ''LRIM1'', a gene with no homologues in other organisms, which is robustly upregulated during bacterial and malaria infections. It turned out that LRIM1 protein is a very important ''Plasmodium'' parasite antagonist, implicated in killing and clearance of approximately 80% of ''Plasmodium berghei'' ookinetes during invasion of the mosquito midgut. It also targets for melanization the remaining 20% of the parasites; however, two other parasite agonists, CTL4 and CTLMA2, inhibit this reaction <cite>osta2004b</cite>. This study attracted great attention and was one of the most influential in the mosquito immunity field. ''LRIM1'' is also central in bacterial phagocytic pathways.<br><br>  
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We have pioneered the development of a series of functional genomics platforms for ''Anopheles'' research, including various microarray platforms and a full genome RNAi library. The first microarray platform consisted of 4,000 ESTs of the major African malaria vector A. gambiae and was used to study the mosquito immune response and refractoriness to ''Plasmodium''. Later, we produced a 20,000 EST microarray that encompassed approximately 8,000 genes and used extensively by us and others in the research community to address various biological problems, including mosquito responses to viruses, insecticide resistance and developmental programmes. While this platform is still in use, we have generated new full-genome amplicon microarray (MMC2) and, more recently, oligonucleotide microarray platforms, which serve as the main tools in our transcriptomics research to study immune signalling and responses to specific pathogens. The design of MMC2 amplicons have allowed us to also create a double-stranded RNA library of all the mosquito genes. We are currently using this library to finely dissect immune modules and, in collaboration with mathematicians, to study the Anopheles immune system from a systems biological perspective. To complete our genomics toolkit, we called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ''A. gambiae'' genome using sequence traces from past and ongoing genome sequencing projects and are currently developing a SNP chip. We aim to use this to understand the genetic diversity in field mosquitoes that regulates susceptibility vs. refractoriness to ''P. falciparum'' and thus contributes malaria transmission.<br><br>
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Another area of focus of my group is the recognition of danger signals and signalling through NF-kappaB proteins in ''A. gambiae''. We detected significant differences between mosquitoes and flies of the mechanisms of immune responses to bacterial infections <cite>meister2005</cite>. Both Gram-positive and negative bacteria are dealt with by the mosquito ''Imd'' pathway, which is also responsible for killing many parasites during a malaria infection. The pathway controls the expression of antimicrobial peptides and other immune related proteins, including LRIM1. Recent data show that signalling for bacterial and malaria infections are mediated by the pattern recognition receptor PGRPLC.<br><br>
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Transcription profiling of A. gambiae has identified a Leucine-rich repeat encoding gene, ''LRIM1'', as a key player in the mosquito immune system. LRIM1 is a potent antagonist of the development of the rodent malaria parasite, ''P. berghei'', mediating lysis or melanization of ookinetes during their invasion of the mosquito midgut. Genetic epistasis experiments have revealed that the inhibitor of parasite melanization, CTL4, is part of the same immune module and acts downstream of LRIM1. In ''A. gambiae'' infections with the human parasite P. falciparum, this module appears not to have the same effects on parasite development. We are currently investigating whether this difference between the human and rodent parasites relates to their differential ability to evade the mosquito immune system or to differences in their levels of infection. In either case, this is thought to be the result of evolutionary co-adaptation between the host and the parasite, which we aim to study using population genetics approaches. Recent data show that LRIM1 is a member of a mosquito-specific gene family, which comprises additional parasite antagonists.<br><br>
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Recently, we designed a new multifunctional genomic platform, MMC2, from approximately 13,000 amplicons corresponding to equal number of unique ''A. gambiae'' genes. MCC2 could be used to (a) construct an almost full mosquito transcriptome microarray, (b) to synthesize double stranded RNA (dsRNA) towards silencing of corresponding transcripts and (c) to produce protein tags to raise antibodies against all mosquito proteins. Microarrays of MMC2 amplicons are now used as a standard operational platform in various transcriptomic studies. Its use in conjunction with MMC1 comprising additional non-predicted genes represents one of the largest collections of unique ''A. gambiae'' sequences on chip.<br>
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Although A. gambiae is a highly competent vector of human malaria, its sibling A. quadriannulatus is a non-vector. We have shown that ''A. quadriannulatus'' is resistant to infections by P. falciparum and the rodent model ''P. berghei''. Resistance is controlled by quantitative heritable traits and manifested by lysis or melanization of ookinetes in the midgut as well as by killing of parasites at subsequent stages of their development in the mosquito. Orthologs of the Leucine-rich repeat proteins, LRIM1 and LRIM2, and the complement-like protein TEP1 are required in this reaction and their silencing transforms ''A. quadriannulatus'' into a highly permissive vector. Additional genes involved in this phenotype have been identified and are currently being investigated.<br><br>
 +
We have shown that the ''A. gambiae'' equivalent of the ''Drosophila'' Imd pathway is activated in response to bacterial infections and is essential for the survival of adult mosquitoes. This pathway is also involved in the killing of P. berghei in the mosquito midgut, perhaps through transcriptional control of the parasite antagonist, LRIM1. The key recognition receptor of this pathway is PGRPLC, as in ''Drosophila''. PGRPLC exists as three main isoforms, all of which can bind peptidoglycan. Structural modelling has provided insights into how PGRPLC functions to control Imd pathway activation. The Imd pathway and its transcription factor REL2 are not involved with the mosquito fungal infections.<br><br>
 +
A genome-wide analysis of ''A. gambiae'' gene expression revealed a series of developmental transcription programs and tissue-specific patterns. Comparative analysis of these data together with ''Drosophila'' developmental expression has revealed a conservation of orthologous gene expression between these two insects. This similarity of expression is not correlated with the CDS similarity, indicating that expression profiles and coding sequences evolve independently. This is the first large-scale comparative transcriptomic analysis between two distantly related organisms. It has also identified clusters of co-regulated antiparasitic immunity genes which are currently being investigated.
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In addition to being vectors of devastating parasitic diseases, mosquitoes act as vectors of several viral diseases including Dengue and Yellow fever, various encephalitides and Chikungunya (CHIK). The latter has recently become a major threat in countries of the European Union, with a major outbreak in Italy in 2007. We have developed a research programme to study insect responses to viruses, which may help develop future strategies to control spread of such diseases. The alphavirus O’Nyong Nyong (ONN), which is very closely related to CHIK and transmitted by ''A. gambiae'' and ''A. funestus'', is used as a model system. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the A. gambiae responses to infection with the ONN virus identified a number of regulated genes; however, only few are part of the classical mosquito immune repertoire. This suggested that the mosquito response against viral infections is distinct from the immune response against bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. The study of candidate genes and pathways is ongoing.
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The genome sequence of the mosquito ''Aedes aegypti'', which is vector of the viral diseases yellow fever, Dengue and CHIK, has allowed us to perform a comparative phylogenomic analysis of the insect immune repertoire. This analysis has revealed distinct and seemingly contrasting modes of evolution of genes involved in the different phases of immune signalling and the melanization genetic module. These dynamics reflect in part continuous readjustment between accommodation and rejection of pathogens and suggest how innate immunity may have evolved. The impact of these modes of evolution on the interactions of the vector with different pathogens is currently under investigation.
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== Education & Research ==
== Education & Research ==
<blockquote>Diploma in Biology, 1994, University of Athens, Greece<br>
<blockquote>Diploma in Biology, 1994, University of Athens, Greece<br>

Revision as of 04:21, 12 June 2008

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Dr George K. Christophides

Division of Cell & Molecular Biology
Faculty of Natural Sciences
Imperial College London
Room 6167, Sir Alexander Fleming Building
London SW7 2AZ
UK
Tel: +44 (0) 20 759 45342
Fax: +44 (0) 20 759 41759

g.christophides@imperial.ac.uk

Senior Lecturer at Imperial College, London

Imperial faculty webpage
Contact Details


Research Interests

My research focuses on infectious diseases, especially insect-borne. I am particularly interested on the interactions between the innate immune system of disease vectors and pathogens. Among the three leading global infectious diseases is malaria (others are AIDS and TB) that threatens almost half of the global population, infects over 400 million people every year and kills 1-3 million people, mostly young children in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, transmitted between humans through Anopheles mosquitoes. To study the interactions between vectors and pathogens, we use genomics, functional genomics technologies and reverse genetics, combined together in a systems biology approach. Below are some of our recent scientific discoveries and future directions.

We have pioneered the development of a series of functional genomics platforms for Anopheles research, including various microarray platforms and a full genome RNAi library. The first microarray platform consisted of 4,000 ESTs of the major African malaria vector A. gambiae and was used to study the mosquito immune response and refractoriness to Plasmodium. Later, we produced a 20,000 EST microarray that encompassed approximately 8,000 genes and used extensively by us and others in the research community to address various biological problems, including mosquito responses to viruses, insecticide resistance and developmental programmes. While this platform is still in use, we have generated new full-genome amplicon microarray (MMC2) and, more recently, oligonucleotide microarray platforms, which serve as the main tools in our transcriptomics research to study immune signalling and responses to specific pathogens. The design of MMC2 amplicons have allowed us to also create a double-stranded RNA library of all the mosquito genes. We are currently using this library to finely dissect immune modules and, in collaboration with mathematicians, to study the Anopheles immune system from a systems biological perspective. To complete our genomics toolkit, we called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the A. gambiae genome using sequence traces from past and ongoing genome sequencing projects and are currently developing a SNP chip. We aim to use this to understand the genetic diversity in field mosquitoes that regulates susceptibility vs. refractoriness to P. falciparum and thus contributes malaria transmission.

Transcription profiling of A. gambiae has identified a Leucine-rich repeat encoding gene, LRIM1, as a key player in the mosquito immune system. LRIM1 is a potent antagonist of the development of the rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, mediating lysis or melanization of ookinetes during their invasion of the mosquito midgut. Genetic epistasis experiments have revealed that the inhibitor of parasite melanization, CTL4, is part of the same immune module and acts downstream of LRIM1. In A. gambiae infections with the human parasite P. falciparum, this module appears not to have the same effects on parasite development. We are currently investigating whether this difference between the human and rodent parasites relates to their differential ability to evade the mosquito immune system or to differences in their levels of infection. In either case, this is thought to be the result of evolutionary co-adaptation between the host and the parasite, which we aim to study using population genetics approaches. Recent data show that LRIM1 is a member of a mosquito-specific gene family, which comprises additional parasite antagonists.

Although A. gambiae is a highly competent vector of human malaria, its sibling A. quadriannulatus is a non-vector. We have shown that A. quadriannulatus is resistant to infections by P. falciparum and the rodent model P. berghei. Resistance is controlled by quantitative heritable traits and manifested by lysis or melanization of ookinetes in the midgut as well as by killing of parasites at subsequent stages of their development in the mosquito. Orthologs of the Leucine-rich repeat proteins, LRIM1 and LRIM2, and the complement-like protein TEP1 are required in this reaction and their silencing transforms A. quadriannulatus into a highly permissive vector. Additional genes involved in this phenotype have been identified and are currently being investigated.

We have shown that the A. gambiae equivalent of the Drosophila Imd pathway is activated in response to bacterial infections and is essential for the survival of adult mosquitoes. This pathway is also involved in the killing of P. berghei in the mosquito midgut, perhaps through transcriptional control of the parasite antagonist, LRIM1. The key recognition receptor of this pathway is PGRPLC, as in Drosophila. PGRPLC exists as three main isoforms, all of which can bind peptidoglycan. Structural modelling has provided insights into how PGRPLC functions to control Imd pathway activation. The Imd pathway and its transcription factor REL2 are not involved with the mosquito fungal infections.

A genome-wide analysis of A. gambiae gene expression revealed a series of developmental transcription programs and tissue-specific patterns. Comparative analysis of these data together with Drosophila developmental expression has revealed a conservation of orthologous gene expression between these two insects. This similarity of expression is not correlated with the CDS similarity, indicating that expression profiles and coding sequences evolve independently. This is the first large-scale comparative transcriptomic analysis between two distantly related organisms. It has also identified clusters of co-regulated antiparasitic immunity genes which are currently being investigated. In addition to being vectors of devastating parasitic diseases, mosquitoes act as vectors of several viral diseases including Dengue and Yellow fever, various encephalitides and Chikungunya (CHIK). The latter has recently become a major threat in countries of the European Union, with a major outbreak in Italy in 2007. We have developed a research programme to study insect responses to viruses, which may help develop future strategies to control spread of such diseases. The alphavirus O’Nyong Nyong (ONN), which is very closely related to CHIK and transmitted by A. gambiae and A. funestus, is used as a model system. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the A. gambiae responses to infection with the ONN virus identified a number of regulated genes; however, only few are part of the classical mosquito immune repertoire. This suggested that the mosquito response against viral infections is distinct from the immune response against bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. The study of candidate genes and pathways is ongoing. The genome sequence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is vector of the viral diseases yellow fever, Dengue and CHIK, has allowed us to perform a comparative phylogenomic analysis of the insect immune repertoire. This analysis has revealed distinct and seemingly contrasting modes of evolution of genes involved in the different phases of immune signalling and the melanization genetic module. These dynamics reflect in part continuous readjustment between accommodation and rejection of pathogens and suggest how innate immunity may have evolved. The impact of these modes of evolution on the interactions of the vector with different pathogens is currently under investigation.


Education & Research

Diploma in Biology, 1994, University of Athens, Greece
PhD in Molecular Biology, 2000, University of Athens, Greece

Research Assistant, 1994-1995, University of Athens, Greece
Research Assistant, 1996-1999, University of Athens, Greece
Marie-Curie Postdoctoral fellow, 2000-2002, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
Research Associate, 2003-2004, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
Staff Scientist, 2004-2005, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
Senior Lecturer, 2005-present, Division of Cell& Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, London, Untited Kingdom


Publications

  1. Jaubert-Possamai S, Le Trionnaire G, Bonhomme J, Christophides GK, Rispe C, and Tagu D. . pmid:17903251. PubMed HubMed [jaubert2007]
  2. Pindyurin AV, Moorman C, de Wit E, Belyakin SN, Belyaeva ES, Christophides GK, Kafatos FC, van Steensel B, and Zhimulev IF. . pmid:17606990. PubMed HubMed [pindyurin2007]
  3. Waterhouse RM, Kriventseva EV, Meister S, Xi Z, Alvarez KS, Bartholomay LC, Barillas-Mury C, Bian G, Blandin S, Christensen BM, Dong Y, Jiang H, Kanost MR, Koutsos AC, Levashina EA, Li J, Ligoxygakis P, Maccallum RM, Mayhew GF, Mendes A, Michel K, Osta MA, Paskewitz S, Shin SW, Vlachou D, Wang L, Wei W, Zheng L, Zou Z, Severson DW, Raikhel AS, Kafatos FC, Dimopoulos G, Zdobnov EM, and Christophides GK. . pmid:17588928. PubMed HubMed [waterhouse2007]
  4. Koutsos AC, Blass C, Meister S, Schmidt S, MacCallum RM, Soares MB, Collins FH, Benes V, Zdobnov E, Kafatos FC, and Christophides GK. . pmid:17563388. PubMed HubMed [koutsos2005]
  5. Vontas J, David JP, Nikou D, Hemingway J, Christophides GK, Louis C, and Ranson H. . pmid:17433071. PubMed HubMed [vontas2007]
  6. Lawson D, Arensburger P, Atkinson P, Besansky NJ, Bruggner RV, Butler R, Campbell KS, Christophides GK, Christley S, Dialynas E, Emmert D, Hammond M, Hill CA, Kennedy RC, Lobo NF, MacCallum MR, Madey G, Megy K, Redmond S, Russo S, Severson DW, Stinson EO, Topalis P, Zdobnov EM, Birney E, Gelbart WM, Kafatos FC, Louis C, and Collins FH. . pmid:17145709. PubMed HubMed [lawson2007]
  7. Cohuet A, Osta MA, Morlais I, Awono-Ambene PH, Michel K, Simard F, Christophides GK, Fontenille D, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:17099691. PubMed HubMed [cohuet2006]
  8. Vontas J, Blass C, Koutsos AC, David JP, Kafatos FC, Louis C, Hemingway J, Christophides GK, and Ranson H. . pmid:16164607. PubMed HubMed [vontas2005]
  9. Sim C, Hong YS, Vanlandingham DL, Harker BW, Christophides GK, Kafatos FC, Higgs S, and Collins FH. . pmid:16164603. PubMed HubMed [sim2005]
  10. Meister S, Kanzok SM, Zheng XL, Luna C, Li TR, Hoa NT, Clayton JR, White KP, Kafatos FC, Christophides GK, and Zheng L. . pmid:16076953. PubMed HubMed [meister2005]
  11. Vlachou D, Schlegelmilch T, Christophides GK, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:16005290. PubMed HubMed [vlachou2005]
  12. Belyakin SN, Christophides GK, Alekseyenko AA, Kriventseva EV, Belyaeva ES, Nanayev RA, Makunin IV, Kafatos FC, and Zhimulev IF. . pmid:15928082. PubMed HubMed [belyakin2005]
  13. Kriventseva EV, Koutsos AC, Blass C, Kafatos FC, Christophides GK, and Zdobnov EM. . pmid:15899967. PubMed HubMed [kriventseva2005]
  14. Christophides GK. . pmid:15679836. PubMed HubMed [christophides2005]
  15. Hall N, Karras M, Raine JD, Carlton JM, Kooij TW, Berriman M, Florens L, Janssen CS, Pain A, Christophides GK, James K, Rutherford K, Harris B, Harris D, Churcher C, Quail MA, Ormond D, Doggett J, Trueman HE, Mendoza J, Bidwell SL, Rajandream MA, Carucci DJ, Yates JR 3rd, Kafatos FC, Janse CJ, Barrell B, Turner CM, Waters AP, and Sinden RE. . pmid:15637271. PubMed HubMed [hall2005]
  16. Meister S, Koutsos AC, and Christophides GK. . pmid:15582524. PubMed HubMed [meister2004]
  17. Osta MA, Christophides GK, Vlachou D, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:15201288. PubMed HubMed [osta2004]
  18. Christophides GK, Vlachou D, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:15199960. PubMed HubMed [christophides2004]
  19. Osta MA, Christophides GK, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:15044804. PubMed HubMed [osta2004b]
  20. Komitopoulou K, Christophides GK, Kalosaka K, Chrysanthis G, Theodoraki MA, Savakis C, Zacharopoulou A, and Mintzas AC. . pmid:14871611. PubMed HubMed [komitopoulou2004]
  21. Kumar S, Christophides GK, Cantera R, Charles B, Han YS, Meister S, Dimopoulos G, Kafatos FC, and Barillas-Mury C. . pmid:14623973. PubMed HubMed [kumar2003]
  22. Christophides GK, Zdobnov E, Barillas-Mury C, Birney E, Blandin S, Blass C, Brey PT, Collins FH, Danielli A, Dimopoulos G, Hetru C, Hoa NT, Hoffmann JA, Kanzok SM, Letunic I, Levashina EA, Loukeris TG, Lycett G, Meister S, Michel K, Moita LF, Müller HM, Osta MA, Paskewitz SM, Reichhart JM, Rzhetsky A, Troxler L, Vernick KD, Vlachou D, Volz J, von Mering C, Xu J, Zheng L, Bork P, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:12364793. PubMed HubMed [christophides2002]
  23. Zdobnov EM, von Mering C, Letunic I, Torrents D, Suyama M, Copley RR, Christophides GK, Thomasova D, Holt RA, Subramanian GM, Mueller HM, Dimopoulos G, Law JH, Wells MA, Birney E, Charlab R, Halpern AL, Kokoza E, Kraft CL, Lai Z, Lewis S, Louis C, Barillas-Mury C, Nusskern D, Rubin GM, Salzberg SL, Sutton GG, Topalis P, Wides R, Wincker P, Yandell M, Collins FH, Ribeiro J, Gelbart WM, Kafatos FC, and Bork P. . pmid:12364792. PubMed HubMed [zdobnov2002]
  24. Holt RA, Subramanian GM, Halpern A, Sutton GG, Charlab R, Nusskern DR, Wincker P, Clark AG, Ribeiro JM, Wides R, Salzberg SL, Loftus B, Yandell M, Majoros WH, Rusch DB, Lai Z, Kraft CL, Abril JF, Anthouard V, Arensburger P, Atkinson PW, Baden H, de Berardinis V, Baldwin D, Benes V, Biedler J, Blass C, Bolanos R, Boscus D, Barnstead M, Cai S, Center A, Chaturverdi K, Christophides GK, Chrystal MA, Clamp M, Cravchik A, Curwen V, Dana A, Delcher A, Dew I, Evans CA, Flanigan M, Grundschober-Freimoser A, Friedli L, Gu Z, Guan P, Guigo R, Hillenmeyer ME, Hladun SL, Hogan JR, Hong YS, Hoover J, Jaillon O, Ke Z, Kodira C, Kokoza E, Koutsos A, Letunic I, Levitsky A, Liang Y, Lin JJ, Lobo NF, Lopez JR, Malek JA, McIntosh TC, Meister S, Miller J, Mobarry C, Mongin E, Murphy SD, O'Brochta DA, Pfannkoch C, Qi R, Regier MA, Remington K, Shao H, Sharakhova MV, Sitter CD, Shetty J, Smith TJ, Strong R, Sun J, Thomasova D, Ton LQ, Topalis P, Tu Z, Unger MF, Walenz B, Wang A, Wang J, Wang M, Wang X, Woodford KJ, Wortman JR, Wu M, Yao A, Zdobnov EM, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Zhao S, Zhu SC, Zhimulev I, Coluzzi M, della Torre A, Roth CW, Louis C, Kalush F, Mural RJ, Myers EW, Adams MD, Smith HO, Broder S, Gardner MJ, Fraser CM, Birney E, Bork P, Brey PT, Venter JC, Weissenbach J, Kafatos FC, Collins FH, and Hoffman SL. . pmid:12364791. PubMed HubMed [holt2002]
  25. Dimopoulos G, Christophides GK, Meister S, Schultz J, White KP, Barillas-Mury C, and Kafatos FC. . pmid:12077297. PubMed HubMed [dimopoulos2002]
  26. Christophides GK, Savakis C, Mintzas AC, and Komitopoulou K. . pmid:11437916. PubMed HubMed [christophides2001]
  27. Christophides GK, Livadaras I, Savakis C, and Komitopoulou K. . pmid:10978283. PubMed HubMed [christophides2000]
  28. Christophides GK, Mintzas AC, and Komitopoulou K. . pmid:10762426. PubMed HubMed [christophides2000b]
  29. Lygerou Z, Christophides G, and Séraphin B. . pmid:10022888. PubMed HubMed [lygerou2000c]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed HubMed
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