LaTeX is just about the easiest way to write anything that's meant to go on the printed page eventually. The labbook style by Frank Küaut;ster makes this very easy. The style is included in MikTeX and Texlive already.
The style defines three major new commands: labday, experiment, and subexperiment, which you use in place of chapter, section, and subsection. The documentation that comes with the package is very clear, and provides several example files.
LyX is a frontend for LaTeX that hides all the issues of importing data, putting figures in, and not making typos in the commands and environments. To use it with the labbook LaTeX style, you will need this layout file.