SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate/sulphate) is an anionic detergent effective in both acidic and alkaline solutions. SDS has a wide variety of applications, but is most often used in protein and lipid solubilisation.
- highly flammable
- harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
- irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
- water solubility: 250g/l at 20ºC
SDS solubilisation of biomolecules
As a rule of thumb for the solubilisation/solubilization of proteins, SDS should be used at its critical micelle concentration (Womack'83 PMID 6882760). For the effects of SDS on protein conformation see Protein Structure by Creighton . For comparisons between SDS and other detergents for solubilisation of lipids, proteins, and its effect on enzymes activity see Womack '83 (PMID 6882760) and Creighton Protein Structure.
Critical micelle concentration CMC of SDS
CMC of SDS varies with pH. It is about 0.01 mol/L (M) for pH 5-10. At more acidic pH the CMC drops off to about 0.07M at pH 2 (Rahman Brown '83 ).
Stability & Storage
SDS undergoes hydrolysis at higher temperatures especially in acidic medium. Prolonged heating at >40°C causes decomposition of alkyl sulphates into fatty alcohols and sodium sulphate.
Use an ion retardation columns to remove SDS from protein samples. Retardation Resin. For SDS removal methods see Kapp'78 (PMID 9762103) and similar papers . Methylene blue can be used to determine the remaining amount of SDS.