User:Caitlin Barrett/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU
4/23/14 Lab #6- Zebra Fish
Objective: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of fluoride on the embryonic development of zebra fish. We wanted to determine if fluoride acts as a teratogen, meaning it disrupts the development of the embryo. Our prediction was that Fluoride will disrupt the embryonic development of zebra fish.
Hypothesis: If the zebra fish embryos are exposed to fluoride, then they will display developmental abnormalities
Procedure: -20 zebra fish eggs were placed in control plates containing only Deer Park spring water. -20 zebra fish were placed in plates containing fluoride. -The fish were observed four times over the course of a week -During each observation the number of living and dead fish, stage of development and physical appearance was noted. -Each time the fish were observed old egg casings were removed from the water -On day seven two fish from each group were fixed -On the final day of the experiment, the four fish that were fixed- two from the control group and two from the fluoride group- were observed and tail length, whole fish length, eye diameter, distance between eyes, degree of pigmentation and pectoral fin development were noted. We compared the observations of the control group and experimental group in order to determine what developmental changes the fluoride caused.
Conclusion: Based on data we can conclude that fluoride does act as a tetratogen and disruptthe embryonic development of zebra fish. These results were consistent with past research of fluoride as well as our prediction.Furthermore, due to the similarities between zebra fish embryonic development and embryonic development of humans, it could be inferred that fluoride could disrupt embryonic development in humans. Therefore, pregnant woman should limit their exposure to fluoride.
Figure 3. Table 1: Comparison of Embryological Features of Starfish, Frog, and Chick Table 2: Comparison of Ecological Aspects in Sea Stars, Frogs and Chick Development. -CB
2/22/14 Lab #5- Invertebrates
Movement of the different worms Coelomates: These worms move around by contracting their muscles and pulling themselves through the dirt. The front part moves first and the back end is pulled along. As the worms move, their skin appears to expand as a result of their long, muscular bodies. Coelomates have two different types of muscles. One type of muscle that contracts and a second muscle that elongates the body cavity.
Pseudocoelomate: These types of worms slither from side to side. This movement is very limited and it shows that the body structure is less advanced compared to the Coelomates.
Acoelomates: These worms move by gliding. There is no evidence of advanced complex muscle movement. As a result of a lack of a coelom, these types of worms don't have much of a support structure. Furthermore they cannot contract their muscles like the Pseudocoelomates and the Coelomates.
Invertebrates found in transect
• Arachnid- Length: 5 mm, Description: 8 legs, tiny hairs, dark brown spot on butt, light gray/brown color, 2 black eyes • Biting Lice (Mallophaga)- Length: 3 mm, Description: oval-shaped, little hairs around back, brown color • Springtail X (Primitive)- Length: 2 mm, Description: 3 segments, grey, hairy, 2 big antennae • Springtail X- Length: 1 mm, Description: six legs, three body segments, 2 antennae, chewing mouth parts, little hairs on body legs, dark lower body. • Proturen X- Length: 1 mm, Description: 4 segments, 6 legs, 2 antennae, stinger on back part, stripes on abdomen. • Flea (Diptera)-Length: 0.1 mm, Description: round, oval-shaped, 3 segments, 2 big eyes, two antennae, and 6 legs
- After 30 minutes of searching we could not find any more organisms.
The size of the organisms ranged from 5 mm to 0.1 mm long. The largest organism was the Arachnid and the smallest organism was the Flea (Diptera). The most common organism was the springtails.
-Some vertebrates that could inhabit the transect are Robins: Chordata, Aves, Passeriformes, Turdidae, Turdus, T Migratorius
Squirrel: Eukarya, Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Rodentia, Sciuridae, Sciurus, Sciurus carolinensis
Nothern Brown Snake: Animalia, Chordata, Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes, Elapidae, Pseudonaja, and P. textilis
Cardinals: Chordata, Aves, Passeriformes, Passeri, Cardinlidae, Periporphyrus, Cardinalis
Pigeons: Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Columbiformes, Columbidae
-The Robins could benefit from the invertebrates as a source of food that they could easily be picked out of the leaf litter. The leaf litter would also benefit as nesting material combined with any man made material that were found within the transect.
-The Squirrels would benefit by eating the small plants and budding flowers off of the plants. Also the Squirrels could take shelter under the small bushes. However, the squirrels main interaction with the transect would be for the purpose of food.
-Northern Brown Snake would benefit for any small mammals that are either living in the transect or who frequently visit the transect for food. Also, the snake would appreciate the wide-open, sunny areas of the transect.
-The Cardinals would appreciate the small invertebrates, especially the worms, as a source of food. Similar to the Robins, the Cardinals would use the leaf litter and man-made materials to create a nest.
-The Pigeons would benefit from any seeds that were left in the transect that were not properly planted within the ground. They would also eat any small invertebrates that are crawling with the transect. The pigeons will also use the man-made materials as well as the leaf litter to construct nets.
Food Web for Transect
2/20/14 Lab #4- Plantae and Fungi
- Note: For 3/5 of our transect plants where we could not find seeds or evidence of flowers or other reproductive parts because it was winter and below freezing temperatures when we harvested these plants. We can assume that with the exception of our #1 and #2 Transect plants which we have determined are Gymnosperms, the remaining three plants are currently not in there optimal blooming time which explains the absence of flowers or seeds.
-Fungi Sporangia are formed from hyphae. They contain spores that can be released. When these spores are released they can perform asexual reproduction. Without these structures, the fungi would not be able to reproduce.
-We did not find any agar on our agar plates.
- Note: I uploaded a picture of "Table 1: Transect Plants" but if you would like me to rewrite out all of the data so that it would be easier to read please let me know.
2/20/14- Microbiology and Identifying Bacteria with DNA Lab #3
1. There may have been Archaea living on the plates. Archaea tend to grow in the most extreme environments, such as the Hot Springs in Yellowstone or the bottom of the ocean. But the bacteria plates are not designed to be a hostile environment. Therefore if there are any Archaea living on the plates, there will be a limited amount and they will not have high fitness because this is not their ideal environment.
2. The appearance and the smell of the Hay Infusion Culture may change from week to week due to the amount of bacteria that is continuing to grow on the plates as well as the plant material that is decomposing. The as the plant material breaks down it makes the water cloudy and can make the water have a darker color.
3. The difference between the tet plates and the non tet plates was the tet colonies were larger than the non-tet colonies. The tet-colonies are also more circular in shape. Futhermore, the tet-colonies were orange and the non-tet colonies were several colors (including orange).
4. The specific color growth on the tet-plates indicates that only specific types of bacteria could only grow on these types of plates. Also, the larger size of the colonies on the tet-plates indicates that that organisms that were able to grown on this plate were better suited for growing on this plate rather than the non-tet plates. If the bacteria was equally suited for growing on both tet and non-tet plates the size of the colonies of both plates would be of equal size.
5. The tetracycline limited the number of bacteria present on the plates. The maximum number of colonies counted on the non-tet plates was 180 ( not counting the lawn that was observed as well). On the tet plates was 53 colonies. There were no fungi found on either plate.
6. After observing both plates, we determined that there were 2 species of bacteria that were unaffected.
7. Tetracyline inhibits a lot of enzyme reactions that are essential for the vital processes of bacterial cells. Tetracycline works by binds specifically to the 30s ribosome of bacteria. This binding prevents the attachment of the aminoacyl tRNA to the RNA-ribosome complex while also inhibiting the other steps of the protein biosynthesis. It can also alter the cytoplasmic membrane which causes leakages of nucleotides and other compounds out of the cell. This altering of the cytoplasmic membrane does not directly kill the bacteria, but instead inhibits it.Tetracycline are most widely know for their efficiacy against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, richettsia, spirochetes and large viruses. (Klajn, Rafal, 2004).
References 1. Klajn, Rafal (2004). Antimicrobial properties: Toxicity of tetracyclines towards bacteria: The least concentration of a tetracycline completely inhibiting growth of bacteria (mg per ml). Retrived from: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/tetracycline/antimicr.htm
2/9/14- Identifying Algae and Proists Lab #2 Description of Hay Infusion Culture: The culture has a yellow/orange tint. There are several small bubbles on the top of the liquid. There is also some plant debris in the culture. There are some small black dots on the top of the culture, which could be mold spots. The culture smells foul, and has a similar smell to mold.
-Organisms could differ near vs far away from plant matter because some organisms have adapted to survive off of the plant matter’s nutrients. Other organisms do not need the plant matter’s nutrients in order to survive and therefore they may suffer more in areas where there is a maximum carrying capacity. These organisms may need to be closer the surface and need more sunlight in order to survive.
Organisms observed in culture: 1. Peranema, mobile, protist, not photosynthesizing, 50um 2. Euglena, mobile, protist, can photosynthesize, 40um
3. Actinoshpaerium, mobile, protist, not photosynthesizing, 75um
Area 2: Bottom of jar 1. Peranema, mobile, protist, not photosynthesizing, 50um 2. Colpidium, mobile, protist, not photosynthesizing, 60um
3. Actinoshpaerium, mobile, protist, not photosynthesizing 75um
Note: We were unable to find 6 different organisms in our Hay Infusion Culture. Therefore, we can assume that that these organisms that were found in two different places in the culture, have adapted to survive in both niches.
How Actinoshpaerium meets all Needs of Life
-Feeds on small flagellates, diminutive cilates, and microscopic algae
-Adapt to its surroundings; It does not have a shell. It has many pseudopodia supported by axopods radiating outward from the cell body, which adhere to passing prey and allows it to roll or float about.
-Replicates through fission
- Actinoshpaerium are subject to pressures of natural seclection. Therefore in order to survive, the Actinoshpaerium must mutate and adapt to its new environments.
-If the Hay Infusion were to be observed in another month, I would predict that the amount of protists found would be significantly decreased. This is because as the amount of nutrients available within the culture decrease, the protists would decresase and that only the strongest protists would survive. Also I would expect the amount of plant debris to decompose.
-The selective pressures on the protists are temperature constraints, limited nutrients supplies, predation by other living species, and limited carrying capacity. If a protist would be able to adapt to all of these selective pressures, then they will survive.
Great job, but don't forget the last item in red about the serial dilution. 2/18/14 GHH
1-28-14 Lab #1- Diversity of Life at AU
Location: Transect is located on south side of campus, next to the tennis courts and athletic fields. The area consists of 6 wooden planting boxes with dirt separating each of the boxes. The ground is flat and consists of dark soil with a mixture of mulch and leaves.
Abiotic features: 1. Planting Boxes 2. Dirt 3. Mulch 4. Rocks 5. Chicken wire
Biotic features 1. Leafy, green plant 2. Grey colored bush 3. Leaves 4. Weeds 5. Small, green bush like weeds