Cytokinins are prokariotic and eukariotic hormones essential for cell division and meiosis in living organisms. Cytokinins are chemical molecules attributed to Gottlieb Haberlandt in 1913 while working on phloem structures of plants. Later in 1941 the research of Johannes van Overbeek discovered the presence of a hormonal compound in milky endosperm of coconut tree oil promoting cell meiosis. In 1955 the work of Carlos Miller from the University of Wisconsin provided further evidences of zeatin, the first cytokinin compound to be synthetized on an artificial medium.
Along with auxins, cytokinins are important hormones found in a host of prokariotic organisms to trigger cytokinesis, the process of cell division and transformation from stem cell to biosynthetise new cell tissue. Cytokinins are thus fundamental metabolic promoters for plant regeneration and may be implicated in germination, growth, and maturation process. Cytokinins may in addition be regrouped in two distinct groups: Adenine-type cytokinins and phenylurea-type cytokinins.
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Auxin transcription factors
- A plant hormone promoting cell tissue division and cytokinesis. (KEYWORD: Cytokinins, chromatin, etc...)
- Auxins may help to induce sex differenciation (phenotype) in diploids plants (ie C4) from environment factors and genotype (2n = diploid)
- Auxins may promote/regulate Ethylene synthesis in new apical growth tips
- Role in ATP(ase) dependent signal transduction -> activate mRNA polymerase transcription of new cell tissue -- doesn't affect chromatin
cytokinins, auxins, meiosis, cytokinesis, zeatin