BME100 f2015:Group16 8amL1

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Contents

OUR TEAM

Name: Ryan Pan
Name: Ryan Pan
Name: Patrick Hogan
Name: Patrick Hogan
Name: Jessica Arroyo
Name: Jessica Arroyo
Name: Nicholas Torres
Name: Nicholas Torres
Name: Erin-Shea Warner
Name: Erin-Shea Warner
Name: Christy Goudamanis
Name: Christy Goudamanis

LAB 1 WRITE-UP

Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent variable (IV): Dosage of inflammation inducing agent (lipopolysaccharide). This is the IV because by varying the dosage of lipopolysaccharide we are able to test its effect on the amount of Inflammotin present in the blood samples we collect (DV).

Dependent variable (DV): Amount of inflammatory protein (Inflammotin) in blood samples. The amount of Inflammotin present in blood samples is the DV because it is being tested based on the varying dosage of the lipopolysaccharide (IV).

Experimental Design

Groups
Total of 120 subjects, 6 groups of 20 subjects each ranging between ages 55-75: The first group will be receiving a placebo, essentially 0mg of lipopolysaccharide, and the following groups will be receiving increasing increments of 2mg of lipopolysaccharide going all the way to 10mg of lipopolysaccharide. The groups range from 0-10mg of lipopolysaccharide due to the fact that the 10mg dosage of lipopolysaccharide was shown to increase Inflammotin in blood samples, and we are testing to find the smallest dosage of lipopolysaccharide that increases Inflammotin levels in blood samples.See example group below.

Example
(Placebo - 0mg) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)

(2mg of lipopolysaccharide) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)

(4mg of lipopolysaccharide) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)

(6mg of lipopolysaccharide) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)

(8mg of lipopolysaccharide) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)

(10mg of lipopolysaccharide) - 5 subjects from age range 55-60, 5 subjects from age range 60-65, 5 subjects from age range 65-70, 5 subjects from age range 70-75 (Total: 20 subjects)


Age
The age of subjects ranges from 55 - 75, based on our definition of "elderly" subjects.


Number of subjects per group
The number of subjects per group is 20, which allows for a fair representative sample of the elderly. Each group consists of an equal amount of subjects from each age group defined earlier.







Subject Selection

Elderly age is defined between 55-75 years old. We randomly selected both male and female subjects of different ages, height and weight. The sample size consisting of 120 subjects will be evenly divided into 4 subgroups based on age. The 4 subgroups, consisting of 30 subjects, are (55-60) years old, (60-65) years old, (65-70) years old and (70-75) years old. Once each subject has been assigned to their corresponding age group, they will each be randomly selected and assigned to one of the 6 groups, consisting of 20 randomly selected subjects, of varying lipopolysaccharide dosage. This ensures that the defined range of elderly age (55-75) is represented fairly, while maintaining randomization among the 6 groups.





Sources of Error and Bias

The gender of the subjects may add potential bias during the trials, as on average males and females have different body masses which may affect how the body responds to the dosage of lipopolysaccharide. In order to eliminate this source of bias, the subject size will be doubled and separate will be experiments conducted for male and female subjects respectively. The environment from which the subjects are chosen may also add bias to the experiment as they are exposed to different elements, which may or may not influence to how the dosage affects their bodies. Although this bias cannot be eliminated, it can be controlled by using subjects from only specific areas, which can ensure that each subject is from the same environment. Another bias that cannot be eliminated by experimental design is the need for subject's consent. People willing to be involved in a medical experiment may possess different characteristics then those who don't volunteer. Any bias from an individual's health status can be controlled as well by conducting pre-trial physicals on all subjects. Any disorder, allergy, or condition can then be taken into account when reviewing the body’s response to the dosage. Subjects may also be deemed excused from participating in the trials.







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