User:Daniel Mietchen/Notebook/Open Science/2011/03/05/PLoS

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In the wake of the Guttenberg plagiarism case, I came across a free online tool for plagiarism detection that I had put to a test yesterday. Today, I performed some more tests on it, using three of my OA articles as examples.

Source article for this one: Mietchen D, Manz B, Volke F, Storey K (2008) In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLoS One 3 (12):e3826. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0003826 PMID: 19057644.


Phrase Result Detail
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... PLoS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Temperatures below the freezing ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Temperatures below the freezing point of water and the ensuing
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... BACKGROUND: Temperatures below the freezing point of water and the ensuing ice crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
ice crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure and
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... below the freezing point of water and the ensuing ice crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure and function. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
Consequently, species living in seasonally cold environments have evolved a
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Consequently, species living in seasonally cold environments have evolved a multitude of strategies to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
multitude of strategies to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism,
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... living in seasonally cold environments have evolved a multitude of strategies to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism, ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
and the underlying mechanisms are crucial to our understanding of
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms are crucial to our understanding of life. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
In multicellular organisms, and poikilotherm animals in particular, our knowledge
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... In multicellular organisms, and poikilotherm animals in particular, our knowledge about these processes is almost exclusively due to ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
about these processes is almost exclusively due to invasive studies,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In multicellular organisms, and poikilotherm animals in particular, our knowledge about these processes is almost exclusively due to invasive studies, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
thereby limiting the range of conclusions that can be drawn
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... is almost exclusively due to invasive studies, thereby limiting the range of conclusions that can be drawn about intact living systems. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
and spectroscopy have proven useful for in vivo investigations of
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have proven useful for in vivo investigations of a wide range of biological systems, ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
a wide range of biological systems, we aimed at evaluating
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... of a wide range of biological systems, we aimed at evaluating their potential to observe cold adaptations in living insect larvae. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
Specifically, we chose two cold-hardy insect species that frequently serve
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... Specifically, we chose two cold-hardy insect species that frequently serve as cryobiological model systems--the freeze-avoiding gall moth ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
In vivo MR images were acquired from autumn-collected larvae at
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In vivo MR images were acquired from autumn-collected larvae at temperatures between 0°C and about −70°C and at spatial resolutions down to 27 µm. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of detail currently not in reach of other in vivo
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... These images revealed three-dimensional (3D) larval anatomy at a level of detail currently not in reach of other in vivo techniques. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Furthermore, they allowed visualization of the 3D distribution of the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, they allowed visualization of the 3D distribution of the remaining liquid water and of the endogenous cryoprotectants at subzero temperatures, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
remaining liquid water and of the endogenous cryoprotectants at subzero
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008... visualization of the 3D distribution of the remaining liquid water and of the endogenous cryoprotectants at subzero temperatures, ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
Finally, individual fat body cells and their nuclei could be identified in intact frozen Eurosta larvae
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Finally, individual fat body cells and their nuclei could be identified in intact frozen Eurosta larvae. These findings suggest that high resolution MR ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
These findings suggest that high resolution MR techniques provide for
In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high resolution MR techniques provide for interesting methodological options in comparative ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057644 > Cached
Ingbert, Germany, 2 Faculty of Physics and Mechatronics, University of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering (IBMT), St. Ingbert, Germany , 2 Faculty of Physics and Mechatronics, University of the Saarland, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Jena, Jena, Germany, 4 Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... 3 Department of Psychiatry, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany, 4 Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Citation: Mietchen D, Manz B, Volke F, Storey K :
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Citation: Mietchen D, Manz B, Volke F, Storey K (2008) In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of
PLoS Biology: Real Lives and White Lies in the Funding of ... Sep 15, 2009 ... This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, ... http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi%252F10... > Cached
the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
Back - Welcome to Fishlarvae.com This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, ... http://www.fishlarvae.com/e/book.asp%3Fpg%3D52 > Cached
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight ... ... which permits distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This license does not permit ... http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7247/ab... > Cached
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist
CiteSeerX — Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no ... Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist . (2008). Download: http://elara.tk.informatik.tu-darmstadt.de/publica ... http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary%3Fdoi... > Cached
species ranging from prokaryotes to plants to nematodes to insects
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... freezing point of water–has been found in a broad variety of poikilothermic species ranging from prokaryotes to plants to nematodes to insects and fish, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and fish, and it also occasionally occurs in amphibians or
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... to plants to nematodes to insects and fish, and it also occasionally occurs in amphibians or reptiles [1]. Insects clearly belong to the taxa whose cold ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Insects clearly belong to the taxa whose cold hardiness has
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Insects clearly belong to the taxa whose cold hardiness has been investigated most thoroughly, in part due to commercial interests in killing pest species ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
been investigated most thoroughly, in part due to commercial interests
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Insects clearly belong to the taxa whose cold hardiness has been investigated most thoroughly, in part due to commercial interests in killing pest species ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in killing pest species in agriculture and forestry [2] or
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... in part due to commercial interests in killing pest species in agriculture and forestry [2] or in managing valuable species, such as stocks of genetic ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in managing valuable species, such as stocks of genetic model
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... agriculture and forestry [2] or in managing valuable species, such as stocks of genetic model organisms like the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster [3]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Methodologically, whole-body extracts have been the most popular choice for
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Methodologically, whole-body extracts have been the most popular choice for studies of cryoprotectant synthesis and other aspects of intermediary metabolism ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
studies of cryoprotectant synthesis and other aspects of intermediary metabolism,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Methodologically, whole-body extracts have been the most popular choice for studies of cryoprotectant synthesis and other aspects of intermediary metabolism ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
usually performed using quantitative organochemical techniques as well as biochemical
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... usually performed using quantitative organochemical techniques as well as biochemical methods like enzyme assays and kinetic analyses [4], [5]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The presence of antifreeze proteins or ice nucleating proteins in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The presence of antifreeze proteins or ice nucleating proteins in hemolymph is analyzed by various osmometric techniques or differential scanning ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
hemolymph is analyzed by various osmometric techniques or differential scanning
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The presence of antifreeze proteins or ice nucleating proteins in hemolymph is analyzed by various osmometric techniques or differential scanning ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
calorimetry [6], [7], and electron and optical microscopic techniques have
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... differential scanning calorimetry [6], [7], and electron and optical microscopic techniques have been used in some studies to elucidate ultrastructural ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
been used in some studies to elucidate ultrastructural details of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [7], and electron and optical microscopic techniques have been used in some studies to elucidate ultrastructural details of cryodamage [8], [9]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
What all these different approaches have in common is that
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... What all these different approaches have in common is that they do not allow for in vivo observations, albeit the latter are generally more informative and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
they do not allow for in vivo observations, albeit the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... What all these different approaches have in common is that they do not allow for in vivo observations, albeit the latter are generally more informative and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
latter are generally more informative and now commonplace in many
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... they do not allow for in vivo observations, albeit the latter are generally more informative and now commonplace in many branches of the biosciences. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in the life sciences, especially whenever liquid water was of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques, in particular, have found many applications in the life sciences, especially whenever liquid water was of interest (e.g. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Since this is the case in cryoprotection, too, we designed
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since this is the case in cryoprotection, too, we designed the present study to assess the potential of high resolution MR imaging for cryobiological ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
the present study to assess the potential of high resolution
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since this is the case in cryoprotection, too, we designed the present study to assess the potential of high resolution MR imaging for cryobiological ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The animals we chose for our study were the larvae
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The animals we chose for our study were the larvae of two long-standing model species for insect cold hardiness–the freeze-avoiding gall moth Epiblema ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
gall moth Epiblema scudderiana and the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta
In cold-hardy insects, seasonal, temperature, and reversible ... ... overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy species, the freeze-avoiding gall moth Epiblema scudderiana and the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491546 > Cached
this species, elimination of ice nucleators from the body, and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This–combined with the probable presence of ice-structuring proteins [17] in this species, elimination of ice nucleators from the body, and partial ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Eurosta larvae also synthesize cryoprotectants in response to low temperature cues as the autumn progresses
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Eurosta larvae also synthesize cryoprotectants in response to low temperature cues as the autumn progresses. They achieve this by mobilizing large glycogen ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
They achieve this by mobilizing large glycogen stores that are built up during the feeding season in summer
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... They achieve this by mobilizing large glycogen stores that are built up during the feeding season in summer. This species uses a two-component system with ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This species uses a two-component system with glycerol synthesis triggered
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This species uses a two-component system with glycerol synthesis triggered when ambient temperatures fall below about +15°C, whereas sorbitol production is ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Likewise, membrane stabilizers such as the disaccharide trehalose and the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... +5°C. Likewise, membrane stabilizers such as the disaccharide trehalose and the amino acid proline are produced during the period of cold hardening. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
amino acid proline are produced during the period of cold
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... membrane stabilizers such as the disaccharide trehalose and the amino acid proline are produced during the period of cold hardening. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
During autumn, the larvae also elevate the supercooling point of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... During autumn, the larvae also elevate the supercooling point of body fluids to about −8°C, so that freezing can be triggered at a relatively high subzero ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
triggered at a relatively high subzero temperature that allows proper
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... so that freezing can be triggered at a relatively high subzero temperature that allows proper ice management and metabolic adjustments upon the onset of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
ice management and metabolic adjustments upon the onset of freezing
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... at a relatively high subzero temperature that allows proper ice management and metabolic adjustments upon the onset of freezing temperatures [4]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In liquids, the reorientation of the dipolar interaction is usually
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In liquids, the reorientation of the dipolar interaction is usually in the fast motion regime, where both T1 and T2 are on the order of several 100 s of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
are on the order of several 100 s of milliseconds
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... where both T1 and T2 are on the order of several 100 s of milliseconds or seconds. In solids, the rate of this reorientation is dramatically reduced and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In solids, the rate of this reorientation is dramatically reduced
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In solids, the rate of this reorientation is dramatically reduced and therefore in the slow motion regime ([20], [13]). As a consequence, the longitudinal ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
enormous signal loss upon freezing and a corresponding signal increase
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... this translates (under identical acquisition schemes) into an enormous signal loss upon freezing and a corresponding signal increase upon thawing, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
upon thawing, which provide a good theoretical basis for the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... freezing and a corresponding signal increase upon thawing, which provide a good theoretical basis for the experimental observation of these processes. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The local field strength that an atomic nucleus within a
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The local field strength that an atomic nucleus within a sample of interest experiences in the MR magnet is a function of both the static magnetic field ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
sample of interest experiences in the MR magnet is a
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The local field strength that an atomic nucleus within a sample of interest experiences in the MR magnet is a function of both the static magnetic field ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
also referred to as MR microscopy, or MRM [12], [13],
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... resolutions below the spatial resolution limit of human vision (about 100 µm ) is often also referred to as MR microscopy, or MRM [12], [13], [22]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
quick signal decay which generally indicates that many of the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Short T2 relaxation times, i.e. quick signal decay which generally indicates that many of the MR-visible nuclei are restricted in their molecular mobility, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
MR-visible nuclei are restricted in their molecular mobility, result in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... decay which generally indicates that many of the MR-visible nuclei are restricted in their molecular mobility, result in broad peaks in MR spectra. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
If an originally liquid sample with several well-separated MR peaks
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... If an originally liquid sample with several well-separated MR peaks were to become entirely solid, the different peaks would broaden, start to overlap and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
were to become entirely solid, the different peaks would broaden,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... If an originally liquid sample with several well-separated MR peaks were to become entirely solid, the different peaks would broaden, start to overlap and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
start to overlap and finally form one unspecific peak spanning
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... were to become entirely solid, the different peaks would broaden, start to overlap and finally form one unspecific peak spanning the whole spectrum, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
the whole spectrum, even though the underlying processes are not
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... start to overlap and finally form one unspecific peak spanning the whole spectrum, even though the underlying processes are not necessarily identical ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
necessarily identical for different molecular species: while all peaks broaden
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... even though the underlying processes are not necessarily identical for different molecular species: while all peaks broaden due to relaxation effects, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In MR imaging, the time needed for signal acquisition generally
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In MR imaging, the time needed for signal acquisition generally increases with the number of image pixels that the resulting image is to contain in a given ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
increases with the number of image pixels that the resulting
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In MR imaging, the time needed for signal acquisition generally increases with the number of image pixels that the resulting image is to contain in a given ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
high resolution MR images from solids, and signal contributions can
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The quick T2 decay hence seriously impedes the acquisition of high resolution MR images from solids, and signal contributions can in general terms only be ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in general terms only be expected from the narrowest peaks
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... MR images from solids, and signal contributions can in general terms only be expected from the narrowest peaks of the spectrum at the given temperature. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Spatial and chemical information can be combined in MR experiments,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Spatial and chemical information can be combined in MR experiments, in two major fashions: Localized spectroscopy [23] allows the acquisition of spectral ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in two major fashions: Localized spectroscopy [23] allows the acquisition
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Spatial and chemical information can be combined in MR experiments, in two major fashions: Localized spectroscopy [23] allows the acquisition of spectral ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
sample, whereas spectral imaging techniques (known as Chemical Shift-Selective Imaging,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... elements (or voxels) within the sample, whereas spectral imaging techniques (known as Chemical Shift-Selective Imaging, abbreviated CHESS, CSSI or CSI; ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
reviewed in [24]) map the spectral contributions from nuclei in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... CSSI or CSI; reviewed in [24]) map the spectral contributions from nuclei in selected chemical environments (e.g. 1H in water or aliphatic groups) along ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The first applications of MR to frozen samples of biological
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The first applications of MR to frozen samples of biological relevance was the determination of brine content in sea ice by comparing the integral MRS ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
relevance was the determination of brine content in sea ice
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The first applications of MR to frozen samples of biological relevance was the determination of brine content in sea ice by comparing the integral MRS ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
by comparing the integral MRS signal intensity within a sea
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the determination of brine content in sea ice by comparing the integral MRS signal intensity within a sea ice sample and a solution of known composition ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
ice sample and a solution of known composition that was
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the integral MRS signal intensity within a sea ice sample and a solution of known composition that was obtained by melting a sea ice sample [25]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
MRS has since found multiple applications related to cryobiology, ranging
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... MRS has since found multiple applications related to cryobiology, ranging from 31P analysis of adenylate energy metabolism during freezing [26], ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
studies of glucose metabolism and transamination after thawing [28] as
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... to 13C studies of lipids and carbohydrates [27] to 1H studies of glucose metabolism and transamination after thawing [28] as well as of water content in ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
well as of water content in plants [29], biocatalytic model
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and transamination after thawing [28] as well as of water content in plants [29], biocatalytic model systems [30] or food [31] at subzero temperatures. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Brine content again was the dominating feature in the first
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Brine content again was the dominating feature in the first 1H MR images of salt -water ice mimicking the mineral composition of sea water [32], and of sea ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Furthermore, the diffusivity of the brine phase in intact sea
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, the diffusivity of the brine phase in intact sea ice cores was measured [34], the previously reported temperature dependence of brine content ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
ice cores was measured [34], the previously reported temperature dependence
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, the diffusivity of the brine phase in intact sea ice cores was measured [34], the previously reported temperature dependence of brine content ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of brine content [35] could be correlated with changes in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the previously reported temperature dependence of brine content [35] could be correlated with changes in brine pocket size by MR imaging of sea ice [36] ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
brine pocket size by MR imaging of sea ice [36],
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... be correlated with changes in brine pocket size by MR imaging of sea ice [36 ], and the freezing process was followed in a sea ice model system [37]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and the freezing process was followed in a sea ice
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... be correlated with changes in brine pocket size by MR imaging of sea ice [36 ], and the freezing process was followed in a sea ice model system [37]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
used to observe pore structure in permafrost samples [38], to
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Apart from monitoring brine content, 1H MR imaging has been used to observe pore structure in permafrost samples [38], to follow ice nucleation in single ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
follow ice nucleation in single drops of cryoprotective solutions [39],
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... to follow ice nucleation in single drops of cryoprotective solutions [39], for temperature mapping and cryodamage assessment during cryosurgery [40], ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
for temperature mapping and cryodamage assessment during cryosurgery [40], [41],
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... for temperature mapping and cryodamage assessment during cryosurgery [40], [ 41], and for the monitoring of freezing and thawing in food [42], cold-hardy ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and for the monitoring of freezing and thawing in food
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [41], and for the monitoring of freezing and thawing in food [42], cold- hardy plants [43], [44] and animals such as frogs and turtles [45], [46]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
[42], cold-hardy plants [43], [44] and animals such as frogs
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [41], and for the monitoring of freezing and thawing in food [42], cold- hardy plants [43], [44] and animals such as frogs and turtles [45], [46]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
CHESS imaging has previously been used to investigate insect larval
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... CHESS imaging has previously been used to investigate insect larval development (e.g. [47]) in a non-cryobiological context, and technological developments ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
the MR field have recently seen in vivo spatial resolution
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and technological developments in the MR field have recently seen in vivo spatial resolution in non-frozen samples reach the size range relevant for ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in non-frozen samples reach the size range relevant for entomological
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... seen in vivo spatial resolution in non-frozen samples reach the size range relevant for entomological [48] and subcellular investigations [49], [50]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The present study combined these two fields of investigation by
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The present study combined these two fields of investigation by demonstrating the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of insect larvae in a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
demonstrating the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of insect larvae
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The present study combined these two fields of investigation by demonstrating the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of insect larvae in a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Solidago galls containing larvae of Epiblema scudderiana and Eurosta solidaginis
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Solidago galls containing larvae of Epiblema scudderiana and Eurosta solidaginis were collected from fields around Ottawa, Canada in late October 2005. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
were collected from fields around Ottawa, Canada in late October
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Solidago galls containing larvae of Epiblema scudderiana and Eurosta solidaginis were collected from fields around Ottawa, Canada in late October 2005. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Galls were placed in cloth bags and kept outdoors until
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Galls were placed in cloth bags and kept outdoors until mid-December where they experienced ambient temperatures which included subzero temperatures most ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
mid-December where they experienced ambient temperatures which included subzero temperatures
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Galls were placed in cloth bags and kept outdoors until mid-December where they experienced ambient temperatures which included subzero temperatures most ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Previous studies have shown that glycerol levels are maximal in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Previous studies have shown that glycerol levels are maximal in both species by late November, whereas sorbitol in Eurosta reaches at least 50% of the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
both species by late November, whereas sorbitol in Eurosta reaches
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Previous studies have shown that glycerol levels are maximal in both species by late November, whereas sorbitol in Eurosta reaches at least 50% of the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In mid-December, galls were shipped to Germany in insulated containers
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In mid-December, galls were shipped to Germany in insulated containers with cold packs to maintain temperature at 0–5°C and were stored in the lab at 1°C ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Epiblema larvae were imaged while still in their galls
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Epiblema larvae were imaged while still in their galls (cf. Fig. 1A). The galls induced in Solidago stems by Eurosta solidaginis are much larger, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Photograph taken after the experiment, indicating the positioning on the horizontal microwell plate
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... (C) Photograph taken after the experiment, indicating the positioning on the horizontal microwell plate. Note the yellowish appearance due to glycerol. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Note the yellowish appearance due to glycerol
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Note the yellowish appearance due to glycerol. All scale bars in this figure represent 5 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003826.g001 ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
All scale bars in this figure represent 5 mm
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... All scale bars in this figure represent 5 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003826. g001. For each species, the imaging and cooling protocols were tested with ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
For each species, the imaging and cooling protocols were tested
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... For each species, the imaging and cooling protocols were tested with one individual in a pilot experiment, and all data shown here are from another ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
with one individual in a pilot experiment, and all data
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... For each species, the imaging and cooling protocols were tested with one individual in a pilot experiment, and all data shown here are from another ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
shown here are from another individual freshly obtained from the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... in a pilot experiment, and all data shown here are from another individual freshly obtained from the cooling chamber directly prior to the experiment. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The MR images and spectra described in here were acquired
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The MR images and spectra described in here were acquired on a Bruker Avance 400 NMR spectrometer (Bruker, Rheinstetten, Germany) with standard Micro2.5 ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of a 4 ms long sinc-shaped excitation pulse with the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 2) by means of a 4 ms long sinc-shaped excitation pulse with the frequency of the water or lipid resonance [23]. Due to this long excitation pulse, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
A: Epiblema, B: Eurosta
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... A: Epiblema, B: Eurosta. The broad peak referenced to 4.7 ppm represents hydroxyl groups (in water, glycerol and sorbitol), whereas hydrocarbon groups from ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The images were processed and visualized with the help of ImageJ
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The images were processed and visualized with the help of ImageJ (developed at the National Institutes of Health and available online via ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Temperature regulation was achieved using a Bruker variable temperature unit BVT3000
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Temperature regulation was achieved using a Bruker variable temperature unit BVT3000. Liquid nitrogen was evaporated in a closed 30 l dewar using a small ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Liquid nitrogen was evaporated in a closed 30 l dewar using a small heater
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Liquid nitrogen was evaporated in a closed 30 l dewar using a small heater. The cold nitrogen gas was then heated up by the temperature controller before ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The cold nitrogen gas was then heated up by the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The cold nitrogen gas was then heated up by the temperature controller before streaming around the glass tube containing the sample. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
temperature controller before streaming around the glass tube containing the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The cold nitrogen gas was then heated up by the temperature controller before streaming around the glass tube containing the sample. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
cm away from the sample in order to avoid image
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The temperature sensor (copper-constantan thermocouple) had to be placed approximately 4 cm away from the sample in order to avoid image distortions due to ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
At the sample location, the temperature was calibrated via the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... At the sample location, the temperature was calibrated via the line splitting between the methyl and hydroxyl groups in a 100% methanol sample [52]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
line splitting between the methyl and hydroxyl groups in a
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... At the sample location, the temperature was calibrated via the line splitting between the methyl and hydroxyl groups in a 100% methanol sample [52]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Temperature changes were always administered at a rate of 1
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Temperature changes were always administered at a rate of 1 K/min, and once the target temperature was reached, the sample was allowed at least one hour for ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Then, temperature-dependent MR parameters were adjusted, and the temperature was
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Then, temperature-dependent MR parameters were adjusted, and the temperature was kept constant for each acquisition of an image or spectrum. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
While the peaks in the Epiblema spectra
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... While the peaks in the Epiblema spectra (Fig. 2A) exhibit a degree of overlapping that does not allow for a detailed separate analysis, the hydroxyl and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Given that there are no hydrocarbon groups in water and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Given that there are no hydrocarbon groups in water and that both glycerol and sorbitol have equal numbers of hydroxyl and hydrocarbon groups, this decline ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
that both glycerol and sorbitol have equal numbers of hydroxyl
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Given that there are no hydrocarbon groups in water and that both glycerol and sorbitol have equal numbers of hydroxyl and hydrocarbon groups, this decline ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and hydrocarbon groups, this decline of the hydroxyl peak integral
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... water and that both glycerol and sorbitol have equal numbers of hydroxyl and hydrocarbon groups, this decline of the hydroxyl peak integral relative to ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
relative to the hydrocarbon peak integral clearly indicates that the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... decline of the hydroxyl peak integral relative to the hydrocarbon peak integral clearly indicates that the system has lost liquid water due to freezing . ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This effect can also be quantified, at least approximately: although
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This effect can also be quantified, at least approximately: although a single or few layers of water molecules can remain in a liquid phase even below the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
a single or few layers of water molecules can remain
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This effect can also be quantified, at least approximately: although a single or few layers of water molecules can remain in a liquid phase even below the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in a liquid phase even below the homogeneous nucleation temperature
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... can remain in a liquid phase even below the homogeneous nucleation temperature as a result of surface interactions with non-water molecules [30], [ 54], ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
as a result of surface interactions with non-water molecules [30],
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... can remain in a liquid phase even below the homogeneous nucleation temperature as a result of surface interactions with non-water molecules [30], [ 54], ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
[54], [55], it can be assumed, for simplicity, that the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [54], [55], it can be assumed, for simplicity, that the hydroxyl signal at −40°C essentially stems from glycerol and sorbitol. The 65% signal loss of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The freezing trajectory
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The freezing trajectory (Fig. 2C) of the hydrocarbon peak in the Eurosta spectra , on the other hand, remains constant within the inspected temperature range ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
So it cannot be used for the direct observation of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... So it cannot be used for the direct observation of freezing process but it can serve as an internal reference to the hydroxyl peak. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
freezing process but it can serve as an internal reference
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... So it cannot be used for the direct observation of freezing process but it can serve as an internal reference to the hydroxyl peak. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
As for Epiblema, though the peaks in the spectra could
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... As for Epiblema, though the peaks in the spectra could not be separated, the freezing trajectory extracted from the spectra also clearly shows a signal loss ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
not be separated, the freezing trajectory extracted from the spectra
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... As for Epiblema, though the peaks in the spectra could not be separated, the freezing trajectory extracted from the spectra also clearly shows a signal loss ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
also clearly shows a signal loss at lower temperature, attributable
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the freezing trajectory extracted from the spectra also clearly shows a signal loss at lower temperature, attributable to freezing (Fig. 2C). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
acquired at the indicated temperatures, of the Epiblema larva in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 3 shows slices from a 3D 1H MR image (left) and 1H MR spectra (right), acquired at the indicated temperatures, of the Epiblema larva in an orientation ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
When the images and spectra were recorded, the Solidago gall
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... When the images and spectra were recorded, the Solidago gall was still intact, albeit not visible in the MR images on this contrast scale. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
was still intact, albeit not visible in the MR images
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... When the images and spectra were recorded, the Solidago gall was still intact, albeit not visible in the MR images on this contrast scale. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Relative signal intensity (from black = low to white = high
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Relative signal intensity (from black = low to white = high; identical for all MR images in this paper, even though absolute intensities vary considerably) ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
identical for all MR images in this paper, even though
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Relative signal intensity (from black = low to white = high; identical for all MR images in this paper, even though absolute intensities vary considerably) ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
absolute intensities vary considerably) is given in arbitrary units but
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... even though absolute intensities vary considerably) is given in arbitrary units but on scale across temperatures. Image resolution: 47 µm (isotropic). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The spectra are the same as in Fig
In Situ Anti-Stokes Raman Monitoring of Gel-to-Anatase Phase ... The notations of the spectra are the same as in Fig. 3. temperature. These three peaks are nearly indistinguish- able above 200 8 C. This result indicates ... http://www.opticsinfobase.org/viewmedia.cfm%3Furi%... > Cached
2A and repeated here to facilitate interpretation of the images
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 2A and repeated here to facilitate interpretation of the images. Note the image blurring at 0°C and −20°C, hinting at head and tail motion of the larva. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The complete slice series of these four 3D images are given as Movie S1
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The complete slice series of these four 3D images are given as Movie S1. This video also shows the signal contributions from the Solidago twig, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This video also shows the signal contributions from the Solidago
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This video also shows the signal contributions from the Solidago twig, which exhibit a different temperature dependence than the signal from the larva. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
twig, which exhibit a different temperature dependence than the signal
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This video also shows the signal contributions from the Solidago twig, which exhibit a different temperature dependence than the signal from the larva. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
With decreasing temperature, the signal intensity in the images is decreasing too
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... With decreasing temperature, the signal intensity in the images is decreasing too (due to temperature-induced peak broadening, as explained above), ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The high overall signal intensity in the images acquired at
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The high overall signal intensity in the images acquired at the higher temperatures clearly reveals that the larva is not frozen and instead still in a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
the higher temperatures clearly reveals that the larva is not
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The high overall signal intensity in the images acquired at the higher temperatures clearly reveals that the larva is not frozen and instead still in a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
appear slightly blurred due to a movement artifact that testifies
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... At temperatures above −35°C, the contours of the anterior segments appear slightly blurred due to a movement artifact that testifies to the vitality of the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
However, after being cooled down to temperatures below its supercooling
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... However, after being cooled down to temperatures below its supercooling point, the Epiblema larva did not revive, which fits with its classification as a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
point, the Epiblema larva did not revive, which fits with
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... However, after being cooled down to temperatures below its supercooling point, the Epiblema larva did not revive, which fits with its classification as a ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
details about the 3D distribution of different chemicals: Image slices
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The figure also demonstrates how CHESS imaging (for details, see Methods) can reveal details about the 3D distribution of different chemicals: Image slices ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
labeled All were taken from 3D images acquired using chemical
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... distribution of different chemicals: Image slices labeled “All” were taken from 3D images acquired using chemical information from the whole spectrum, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
information from the whole spectrum, whereas the slices labeled Water
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... “All” were taken from 3D images acquired using chemical information from the whole spectrum, whereas the slices labeled “Water” and “Fat”, respectively, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and Fat, respectively, were taken from 3D images that used
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the slices labeled “Water” and “Fat”, respectively, were taken from 3D images that used spectral information from either the water or hydrocarbon peaks . ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Imaging the three-dimensional distribution of water and cryoprotectant in a
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Imaging the three-dimensional distribution of water and cryoprotectant in a living frozen organism: 1H NMR images and corresponding NMR spectra of an ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
, whereas the Water and Fat images only represent contributions
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... of 27 µm), whereas the “Water” and “Fat” images only represent contributions from the hydroxyl peak at 4.7 ppm and the hydrocarbon peak at around 1 ppm, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
the latter were zero-filled to facilitate comparison across temperatures)
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... (acquired at a resolution of 27 µm at −20°C and of 110 µm at −40°C; the latter were zero-filled to facilitate comparison across temperatures). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The overall signal intensity of the water and fat images
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The overall signal intensity of the water and fat images at a given temperature do not add up to the intensity of the whole-spectrum image because the CHESS ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
at a given temperature do not add up to the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The overall signal intensity of the water and fat images at a given temperature do not add up to the intensity of the whole-spectrum image because the CHESS ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
intensity of the whole-spectrum image because the CHESS sequences required
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... do not add up to the intensity of the whole-spectrum image because the CHESS sequences required longer echo times (for details, see methods section). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and almost complementary to each other, thereby highlighting the potential
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 4) were very distinct and almost complementary to each other, thereby highlighting the potential of CHESS imaging to assist investigations into the 3D ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of CHESS imaging to assist investigations into the 3D distribution
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... to each other, thereby highlighting the potential of CHESS imaging to assist investigations into the 3D distribution of water and cryoprotectants. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of the water in the larva was frozen, the CHESS
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... While the spectrum acquired at −40°C already indicates that most of the water in the larva was frozen, the CHESS images reveal that freezing does not occur ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
images reveal that freezing does not occur homogeneously across the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... indicates that most of the water in the larva was frozen, the CHESS images reveal that freezing does not occur homogeneously across the organism. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
MR techniques have a two decade-long history of single-cell imaging (cf
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... MR techniques have a two decade-long history of single-cell imaging (cf. [56]), and in vivo MR images of single cells have been acquired before (for recent ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
[56]), and in vivo MR images of single cells have
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... [56]), and in vivo MR images of single cells have been acquired before (for recent reviews, see [22], [57]) but to our knowledge, these fat cells represent ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
been acquired before (for recent reviews, see [22], [57]) but
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... [56]), and in vivo MR images of single cells have been acquired before (for recent reviews, see [22], [57]) but to our knowledge, these fat cells represent ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
to our knowledge, these fat cells represent the first instance
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [57]) but to our knowledge, these fat cells represent the first instance of individual cells having been imaged in vivo inside an opaque multicellular ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of individual cells having been imaged in vivo inside an
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... these fat cells represent the first instance of individual cells having been imaged in vivo inside an opaque multicellular organism in a frozen state ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
opaque multicellular organism in a frozen state (corresponding optical images
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... inside an opaque multicellular organism in a frozen state (corresponding optical images have been obtained by [58] in a transparent Antarctic worm). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
That the larva were still alive during the experiment was
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... That the larva were still alive during the experiment was confirmed by the motion artefacts (cf. Fig. 4) and by the observation–in line with the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
line with the classification of Eurosta solidaginis as a freeze-tolerant
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 4) and by the observation–in line with the classification of Eurosta solidaginis as a freeze-tolerant species–that they successfully revived and moved ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
As the data acquired from the larvae had spatial, spectral
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... As the data acquired from the larvae had spatial, spectral and temperature dimensions for both species, a number of possibilities exist to visualize them. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and temperature dimensions for both species, a number of possibilities
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... As the data acquired from the larvae had spatial, spectral and temperature dimensions for both species, a number of possibilities exist to visualize them. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This is illustrated in Fig
made. This is illustrated in Fig. 1, in which the overall ... This is illustrated in Fig. 1, in which the overall similarity between organisms A and B that would be found given homology ... http://www.jstor.org/stable/2412081 > Cached
6 which emphasize two different aspects of the methodology: Fig
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 6 which emphasize two different aspects of the methodology: Fig. 5 shows the 3D distribution of water and hydrocarbons in the Eurosta larva at −20°C, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
5 shows the 3D distribution of water and hydrocarbons in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 5 shows the 3D distribution of water and hydrocarbons in the Eurosta larva at − 20°C, thereby highlighting spectral (CHESS) imaging. Fig. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The water-based 3D model is depicted in semi-transparent brown and the model based on the fat signal in red
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The water-based 3D model is depicted in semi-transparent brown and the model based on the fat signal in red. An animation of this chemical shift-coded ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
An animation of this chemical shift-coded composite 3D model is supplied as the supplementary video file Movie S8
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... An animation of this chemical shift-coded composite 3D model is supplied as the supplementary video file Movie S8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003826.g005 ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
An animation of this temperature-coded composite 3D model is supplied as the supplementary video file Movie S9
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... An animation of this temperature-coded composite 3D model is supplied as the supplementary video file Movie S9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003826.g006 ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The experiments described in this paper have presented a new
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The experiments described in this paper have presented a new cryobiological tool by showing that three-dimensional microscopic MR images can be acquired ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
cryobiological tool by showing that three-dimensional microscopic MR images can
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The experiments described in this paper have presented a new cryobiological tool by showing that three-dimensional microscopic MR images can be acquired ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The properties observable in these image sets include anatomical structures
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The properties observable in these image sets include anatomical structures of the larvae down to the cellular level as well as larval chemical composition, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of the larvae down to the cellular level as well
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The properties observable in these image sets include anatomical structures of the larvae down to the cellular level as well as larval chemical composition, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
This opens the door for further MR-based cryobiological investigations: It
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This opens the door for further MR-based cryobiological investigations: It is known, for example, that non-frozen fat body cells of overwintering Eurosta ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
is known, for example, that non-frozen fat body cells of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... This opens the door for further MR-based cryobiological investigations: It is known, for example, that non-frozen fat body cells of overwintering Eurosta ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
overwintering Eurosta larvae have a water content of only about
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... for example, that non-frozen fat body cells of overwintering Eurosta larvae have a water content of only about 35% ([59]). The images in Fig. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Consequently, MR microimaging studies can be a valuable aid in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Consequently, MR microimaging studies can be a valuable aid in gaining a deeper understanding of cold adaptations at the cellular level. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
gaining a deeper understanding of cold adaptations at the cellular
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Consequently, MR microimaging studies can be a valuable aid in gaining a deeper understanding of cold adaptations at the cellular level. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Furthermore, MR microimaging could be used to develop and test
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, MR microimaging could be used to develop and test new cryobiotechnological methodologies by providing microscopic images of the status of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
new cryobiotechnological methodologies by providing microscopic images of the status
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, MR microimaging could be used to develop and test new cryobiotechnological methodologies by providing microscopic images of the status of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
for example, the images in Fig
X-ray topographic observations of dislocation-ferromagnetic domain ... For example, the images in Fig. 1 of the dislocations EC, CT, NG, GL, and LR are invisible in the (011) reflection (Fig. 2). The vanishing of the dis- ... http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssa.22... > Cached
3 very clearly show a huge difference in signal between
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 3 very clearly show a huge difference in signal between −35°C where the larva is still in the supercooled state and −70°C where the larva is frozen. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
They also correspond with the known viability of this species
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... They also correspond with the known viability of this species which is (in the absence of inoculative freezing) remarkably high at temperatures at or above ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
MR microimaging studies of frozen [36], [45], [46] or otherwise
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... MR microimaging studies of frozen [36], [45], [46] or otherwise dehydrated samples [62]–[65], [66], [67] are still limited in number and scope, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
and scope, much like non-invasive investigations into developing organisms or
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [66], [67] are still limited in number and scope, much like non-invasive investigations into developing organisms or single cells therein [50]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
However, MR techniques already currently provide a multitude of experimental options at the different levels of biological organization
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... However, MR techniques already currently provide a multitude of experimental options at the different levels of biological organization. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Since the necessary equipment is being installed in more and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since the necessary equipment is being installed in more and more laboratories, such investigations will certainly contribute significantly to the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
more laboratories, such investigations will certainly contribute significantly to the
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since the necessary equipment is being installed in more and more laboratories, such investigations will certainly contribute significantly to the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
understanding of living systems, even more so in light of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... to the understanding of living systems, even more so in light of a number of further technological advances in the MR field (for review, see [68]). ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Experiments at higher magnetic field strengths result in increased signal-to-noise
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Experiments at higher magnetic field strengths result in increased signal-to- noise ratios and improved peak separability [69], cryoprobes reduce the noise ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
ratios and improved peak separability [69], cryoprobes reduce the noise
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Experiments at higher magnetic field strengths result in increased signal-to- noise ratios and improved peak separability [69], cryoprobes reduce the noise ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
[70], stronger gradients open the door to higher spatial resolution
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... cryoprobes reduce the noise [70], stronger gradients open the door to higher spatial resolution [57], while sophisticated pulse sequences allow to coax ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
[57], while sophisticated pulse sequences allow to coax ever more
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... stronger gradients open the door to higher spatial resolution [57], while sophisticated pulse sequences allow to coax ever more subtle information out ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
schemes allow the investigation of several specimens under identical or
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and parallel acquisition schemes allow the investigation of several specimens under identical or controllably varied conditions [74]–[77]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
remote detection schemes [78] and, though perhaps more slowly, from
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Further progress can be expected from mobile MR devices [74]–[77], remote detection schemes [78] and, though perhaps more slowly, from approaches based on ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Like any other imaging technique, MRI can produce artefacts if
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Like any other imaging technique, MRI can produce artefacts if theoretical assumptions underlying the image acquisition or processing are not met by the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
theoretical assumptions underlying the image acquisition or processing are not
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Like any other imaging technique, MRI can produce artefacts if theoretical assumptions underlying the image acquisition or processing are not met by the ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
It has already observed that different regions in the body
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... It has already observed that different regions in the body of freeze-tolerant frogs freeze at different external temperatures [46], and using ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
of freeze-tolerant frogs freeze at different external temperatures [46], and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... It has already observed that different regions in the body of freeze-tolerant frogs freeze at different external temperatures [46], and using ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
using high-resolution techniques, this kind of functional MRI approach can
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and using high-resolution techniques, this kind of functional MRI approach can be extended to investigate such cryobiological processes in more detail. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Safety concerns play a major role in the choice of
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Safety concerns play a major role in the choice of imaging techniques for biomedical applications, and one of the reasons for the popularity of MR ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
imaging techniques for biomedical applications, and one of the reasons
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Safety concerns play a major role in the choice of imaging techniques for biomedical applications, and one of the reasons for the popularity of MR ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
for the popularity of MR techniques is that they (in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... biomedical applications, and one of the reasons for the popularity of MR techniques is that they (in contrast, for instance, to Computed tomography; cf. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
For other organisms, however, the situation may be different, especially at higher field strengths [96], [97]
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... For other organisms, however, the situation may be different, especially at higher field strengths [96], [97]. Since MR emphasizes different characteristics ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Since MR emphasizes different characteristics of a sample under investigation
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since MR emphasizes different characteristics of a sample under investigation than other imaging or spectroscopic modalities do, its combination with ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
than other imaging or spectroscopic modalities do, its combination with
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Since MR emphasizes different characteristics of a sample under investigation than other imaging or spectroscopic modalities do, its combination with ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
considerable promise, especially in light of ever more sophisticated approaches
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [107]–harbours considerable promise, especially in light of ever more sophisticated approaches to multidimensional image processing [108]–[110] and ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
It should be noted that the methods described here and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... It should be noted that the methods described here and mentioned so far are not restricted to use in animals–they can equally (or perhaps even better, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Indeed, information about the Solidago host of the Epiblema larvae
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Indeed, information about the Solidago host of the Epiblema larvae in our experiments can already be derived from data sets like the one described in Fig. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
in our experiments can already be derived from data sets
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Indeed, information about the Solidago host of the Epiblema larvae in our experiments can already be derived from data sets like the one described in Fig. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
3 by simply changing the image contrast
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 3 by simply changing the image contrast. In our case, since the focus of the experiments was on insect cold hardiness, the Solidago stems had been cut ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
In our case, since the focus of the experiments was
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In our case, since the focus of the experiments was on insect cold hardiness, the Solidago stems had been cut during insect collection but many experimental ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
on insect cold hardiness, the Solidago stems had been cut
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... In our case, since the focus of the experiments was on insect cold hardiness, the Solidago stems had been cut during insect collection but many experimental ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
during insect collection but many experimental designs targeting host-parasite and
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... the Solidago stems had been cut during insect collection but many experimental designs targeting host-parasite and other environmental interactions ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Similarly, comparative analyses of taxonomically close or distant species can
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Similarly, comparative analyses of taxonomically close or distant species can be performed (cf. [116]), opening up multiple windows for the study of ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Aquaporins, for example, have been found to be implicated in
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Aquaporins, for example, have been found to be implicated in cold hardiness [118 ], also in Eurosta [119], and can be successfully traced by MR [120]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
cold hardiness [118], also in Eurosta [119], and can be
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Aquaporins, for example, have been found to be implicated in cold hardiness [118 ], also in Eurosta [119], and can be successfully traced by MR [120]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Given that the physiological effects of any kind of dehydration
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Given that the physiological effects of any kind of dehydration are in many aspects similar [15], [121], the methodology described here may well be suitable ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
are in many aspects similar [15], [121], the methodology described
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Given that the physiological effects of any kind of dehydration are in many aspects similar [15], [121], the methodology described here may well be suitable ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
here may well be suitable to the study of similar
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... [121], the methodology described here may well be suitable to the study of similar processes at other non-freezing temperatures, e.g. biomineralisation. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
biomineralisation
Biomineralization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia These composites are often not only as hard as the pure mineral but also tougher , as at last, the micro-environment controls biomineralisation. ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomineralization > Cached
MR spectroscopic [122], [123] and imaging studies [65], [124] in bone and fossils already point in this direction
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... MR spectroscopic [122], [123] and imaging studies [65], [124] in bone and fossils already point in this direction. Furthermore, it can be expected that ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Furthermore, it can be expected that neighbouring fields, like biodiversity
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Furthermore, it can be expected that neighbouring fields, like biodiversity studies, will continue to profit (perhaps increasingly so) from cryotechniques ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
means of preservation, and the growing popularity of cryobanking as
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... will continue to profit (perhaps increasingly so) from cryotechniques as a means of preservation, and the growing popularity of cryobanking as well as ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
well as the improving quality of the preserved samples might
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and the growing popularity of cryobanking as well as the improving quality of the preserved samples might eventually lead to cryobanks taking over ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
eventually lead to cryobanks taking over museal functions for molecular,
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... of the preserved samples might eventually lead to cryobanks taking over museal functions for molecular, cellular and tissue samples [125], [126]. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Curating and monitoring these will require non-invasive microscopic technologies of the kind presented here
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... PLoS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Freezing and dehydration of biological specimens in response to cooling
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Freezing and dehydration of biological specimens in response to cooling below the freezing point of water can effectively be monitored by Magnetic Resonance ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
below the freezing point of water can effectively be monitored
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Freezing and dehydration of biological specimens in response to cooling below the freezing point of water can effectively be monitored by Magnetic Resonance ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Consequently, this non-invasive in vivo technique, along with the achievable
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... monitored by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy down to about −70°C. Consequently, this non-invasive in vivo technique, along with the achievable spatial, ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, provides for very interesting non-invasive
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... this non-invasive in vivo technique, along with the achievable spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, provides for very interesting non-invasive ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
well as their evolutionary and ecological relationships, and to optimize
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... ... and–by extension–dehydration, extremophiles as well as their evolutionary and ecological relationships, and to optimize cryobiotechnological procedures. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Slice series from 3D MR images, corresponding to Fig
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Slice series from 3D MR images, corresponding to Fig. 3, acquired at 0°C (top), −20°C, −35°C and −70°C (bottom). (16.78 MB AVI) ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Slice series from 3D MR image, corresponding to Fig
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 1H NMR image of an Eurosta larva at −20°C, using all spectral information. Slice series from 3D MR image, corresponding to Fig. 4, acquired at −20°C. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
3D model of the water and lipid distribution in a Eurosta larva
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... 3D model of the water and lipid distribution in a Eurosta larva. Animation of the 3D model described in Fig. 5, based on 1H NMR water and hydrocarbon images ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Animation of the 3D model described in Fig
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Animation of the 3D model described in Fig. 5, based on 1H NMR water and hydrocarbon images obtained at −20°C K. The water-based 3D model is depicted in ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Note that single cells can be discerned
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Note that single cells can be discerned. (8.83 MB AVI). Movie S9. Temperature- weighted 3D model of an Epiblema larva. Animation of the 3D model described in ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Temperature-weighted 3D model of an Epiblema larva
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Temperature-weighted 3D model of an Epiblema larva. Animation of the 3D model described in Fig. 6, based on 1H NMR whole-spectrum images obtained at −35°C ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
The authors wish to acknowledge valuable discussions with Stefan Hetz
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... The authors wish to acknowledge valuable discussions with Stefan Hetz on physiological aspects of the study and with Markus Küppers and Christine Müller on ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
We also thank Janet Storey for critical reviews of earlier
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... We also thank Janet Storey for critical reviews of earlier drafts of this manuscript, and Anthony Serianni and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
drafts of this manuscript, and Anthony Serianni and two anonymous
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... We also thank Janet Storey for critical reviews of earlier drafts of this manuscript, and Anthony Serianni and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Conceived and designed the experiments: DM
PLoS ONE: Evaluation and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for ... Conceived and designed the experiments: DM MSJ. Performed the experiments: CG NRH. Analyzed the data: DM GPS MSJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/jo... > Cached
Performed the experiments: DM BM
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Performed the experiments: DM BM. Analyzed the data: DM BM FV KBS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FV KBS. Wrote the paper: DM BM KBS. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Analyzed the data: DM BM FV KBS
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Performed the experiments: DM BM. Analyzed the data: DM BM FV KBS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FV KBS. Wrote the paper: DM BM KBS. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
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MEASURING CELL VOLUME REGULATION WITH TIME RESOLVED ACOUSTIC ... Lemor R, Pilarczyk G, Westphal I, Weiss EC, Combination of acoustic and optical microscopy for investigation of biological cell properties, in Acoustical ... http://www.springerlink.com/index/wr46v047m3q38utu... > Cached
of acoustic and optical microscopy for investigation of biological cell
Imaging of Focal Contacts of Chicken Heart Muscle Cells by High ... Lemor et al 2003 R. Lemor, G. Pilarczyk and I. Westphal et al., Combination of acoustic and optical microscopy for investigation of biological cell ... http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03015... > Cached
Acoustical Imaging Vol 27
Acoustical Imaging Series: Acoustical Imaging, Vol. 27. Arnold, Walter K.; Hirsekorn, Sigrun (Eds.) 2004, ISBN 978-1-4020-2401-6, Hardcover Ships in 3 - 5 business days ... http://www.springer.com/series/6903 > Cached
Dordrecht, New York: Kluwer
THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH ON THE TEACHING OF WRITING Boston, Dordrecht, New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Allal, L., Chanquoy, L. & Largy, P. (Eds.), (2004). Revision of written language: ... http://www.springerlink.com/index/B27015L464K105N5... > Cached
Catana C, Procissi D, Wu Y, Judenhofer MS, Qi J, et al
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Catana C, Procissi D, Wu Y, Judenhofer MS, Qi J, et al. (2008) Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging
Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic ... Mar 4, 2008 ... Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging . Catana C, Procissi D, Wu Y, Judenhofer MS, Qi J, ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18319342 > Cached
Lacey ME, Tan ZJ, Webb AG, Sweedler JV Union
Publications, 99-02 Lacey, M. E.; Tan, Z. J.; Webb, A. G.; Sweedler, J. V. "Union of capillary high- performance liquid chromatography and microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance ... http://www.scs.illinois.edu/sweedler/publications,... > Cached
of capillary high-performance liquid chromatography and microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance
Union of capillary high-performance liquid chromatography and ... Union of capillary high-performance liquid chromatography and microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy applied to the separation and identification ... http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00219... > Cached
Haynes JD, Sakai K, Rees G, Gilbert S, Frith C, et al
PLoS ONE: Testing Simulation Theory with Cross-Modal Multivariate ... Find this article online; Haynes J-D, Sakai K, Rees G, Gilbert S, Frith C, et al . (2007) Reading Hidden Intentions in the Human Brain. ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/jo... > Cached
Rueden C, Eliceiri KW, White JG VisBio: A Computational Tool for Visualization of Multidimensional Biological Image Data
Development of Invertebrate Brain Platform Rueden, C., Eliceiri, K.W., White, J.G.: VisBio: a computational tool for visualization of multidimensional biological image data. Traffic 5, 411-417 ( 2004) ... http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm%3Fid%3D1423325 > Cached
Van Essen DC, Dierker DL Surface-Based and Probabilistic Atlases of Primate Cerebral Cortex
A surface-based analysis of hemispheric asymmetries and folding of ... Feb 10, 2010 ... [PubMed]; Van Essen DC, Dierker DL. Surface-based and probabilistic atlases of primate cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2007;56:209–225. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC283619... > Cached
Wilke M, Holland SK, Altaye M, Gaser C Template-O-Matic: A toolbox for creating customized pediatric templates
Mekibib Altaye, PhD, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Wilke M, Holland SK, Altaye M, Gaser C. Template-o-matic: a toolbox for creating customized pediatric templates.NeuroImage (2008) 41(3): 903-13. ... http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/research/div/ce... > Cached
Eisenreich W, Bacher A Advances of high-resolution NMR techniques in the structural and metabolic analysis of plant biochemistry
References - NMR - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology ... Oct 1, 2009 ... Eisenreich W, Bacher A. Advances of high-resolution NMR techniques in the structural and metabolic analysis of plant biochemistry. ... http://www.hort.purdue.edu/rhodcv/hort640c/referen... > Cached
Sattler B, Puxbaum H, Psenner R Bacterial growth in supercooled cloud droplets
Geographic, seasonal, and precipitation chemistry influence on the ... Dec 2, 2008 ... Sattler B, Puxbaum H, Psenner R. Bacterial growth in supercooled cloud droplets. Geophys Res Lett. 2001;28:239–242. 34. Amato P, et al. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC259626... > Cached
Geophys Res Lett
Geophysical Research Letters Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) publishes short, concise research letters that ... GRL letters can focus on a specific discipline or apply broadly to the ... http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/ > Cached
Tinbergen N On aims and methods of ethology
Three sensible paradigms for research on evolution and human ... Tinbergen, N. On aims and methods of ethology. Zietschrift fur Tierpsychologie 20: 410433, 1963. Winterhalder, B. and Smith, E.A. Huntergatherer foraging ... http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/016230... > Cached
Zeitschr f Tierpsychol
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Sinclair BJ, Vernon P, Jaco Klok C, Chown SL Insects at low temperatures: an ecological perspective
BioMed Central | Full text | Surviving extreme polar winters by ... Dec 21, 2007 ... Sinclair BJ, Vernon P, Jaco Klok C, Chown SL: Insects at low temperatures: an ecological perspective. Trends Ecol Evol 2003, 18:257-262. ... http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/8/475 > Cached
Trends Ecol Evol
Trends in Ecology & Evolution - Elsevier Reviews, commentaries, discussions and letters in all areas of ecology and evolutionary science. http://www.elsevier.com/locate/tree > Cached
Izumi Y, Sonoda S, Yoshida H, Danks HV, Tsumuki H
Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze ... Dec 15, 2005 ... Izumi Y, Sonoda S, Yoshida H, Danks HV, Tsumuki H. Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Kurashiki 710-0046, Japan. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359699 > Cached
Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in
Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze ... Dec 15, 2005 ... Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359699 > Cached
the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis
Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze ... Dec 15, 2005 ... Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359699 > Cached
Philip BN, Yi SX, Elnitsky MA, Lee RE Jr
Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in ... Philip BN, Yi SX, Elnitsky MA, Lee RE Jr. Department of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA. philipbn@muohio.edu ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344486 > Cached
Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in
Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in ... Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Benjamin N. Philip*, Shu-Xia Yi, ... http://www.units.muohio.edu/cryolab/publications/d... > Cached
Quigley F, Rosenberg JM, Shachar-Hill Y, Bohnert HJ From genome to function: the Arabidopsis aquaporins
Measuring the Osmotic Water Permeability of the Plant Protoplast ... Dec 9, 2010 ... [PubMed]; Quigley F, Rosenberg JM, Shachar-Hill Y, Bohnert HJ. From genome to function: the Arabidopsis aquaporins. Genom Biol. 2001;3:1–17. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC299983... > Cached
Lambert JB, Shawl CE, Stearns JA Nuclear magnetic resonance in archaeology
In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... Lambert JB, Shawl CE, Stearns JA. Nuclear magnetic resonance in archaeology. Chem Soc Rev. 2000;29:175–182. 123. Lee AP, Klinowski J, ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC258665... > Cached
Lee AP, Klinowski J, Marseglia EA Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy To Bone Diagenesis
In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic ... Dec 5, 2008 ... Lee AP, Klinowski J, Marseglia EA. Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy To Bone Diagenesis. J Archaeol Sci. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC258665... > Cached
Borah B, Gross GJ, Dufresne TE, Smith TS, Cockman MD, et al
PLoS ONE: In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae ... Find this article online; Borah B, Gross GJ, Dufresne TE, Smith TS, Cockman MD, et al. (2001) Three-dimensional microimaging (MRmicroI and microCT), ... http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10... > Cached
Three-dimensional microimaging (MRmicroI and microCT), finite element modeling, and rapid prototyping provide unique insights into bone architecture in osteoporosis
Three-dimensional microimaging (MRmicroI and microCT), finite ... Three-dimensional microimaging (MRmicroI and microCT), finite element modeling, and rapid prototyping provide unique insights into bone architecture in ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11323772 > Cached
Moritz C, Labbe C Cryopreservation of goldfish fins and optimization for field scale cryobanking
Optimization of somatic cell injection in the perspective of ... Jun 8, 2010 ... [PubMed] [Cross Ref]; Moritz C, Labbe C. Cryopreservation of goldfish fins and optimization for field scale cryobanking. Cryobiology. ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288986... > Cached
Please follow our guidelines for notes and comments and review our competing interests policy
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