User:Farris Dwider/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU
This post is related to Lab 3 and is an update on the gene analysis we did. The results told us a few things about the organisms we got the DNA from. It codes for Sphingobacterium faecium which is a bacillus shaped bacteria. Below is a chart and DNA sequence we collected.
- Farris Dwider
In Lab 6 we began to investigate more complex organisms in the form of Zebrafish. This lab began to introduce us to concepts found in embryology. In order to get our feet wet in regards to this subject we began by investigating Starfish, Frog, and Chick. We looked at how they developed, different stages of embryo development, and other important development factors. The chart below shows the data we collected on these three organisms.
In this part of the lab we were suppose to observe three kinds of of worms. Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, and Coelomates. The observation we were making were based on their movements. The Acoelomates moved in a slithering fashion, this makes sense because their body is very thin and flat. It has a lot of surface area when compared to other worms. Also they cannot elogate their body so slithering is idea for them in terms of movement. Pseudocoelomates have a movement similar to how a snake moves. They are similar looking to snakes and also cannot elogate their body so this type of movement makes sense. Coelomates elongate and contract their bodies to move them forward, this movement makes sense when looking at their body because it is made to move this way based on their rigid body structure.
Next we needed to take our samples that we collected by filtering out our dirt and examine them for organisms. We were only able to find 5 of them. Below is the table containing information and observations of the 5.
Lastly we needed to think of 5 vertebrates in our transect and research them and create a food web. Below is the created food web of a Sparrow Hawk, White Bunny, Robin, Black Squirrel, and Chipmunk.
Robins and Sparrow Hawks are in phylum Chordata. The species of hawk is sparrow hawk and the species of robin is American robin. Squirrels are in the Sciuridae phylum and species is the Black Squirrel. THe chipmunk is the same as the squirrel and species in the eastern chipmunk. Lastly the rabbit is the whitetail rabbit species and in the pylum Chordata. The animals that are herbivores would benefit from mineral rich soil and sunny abiotic features in order to grow grass, trees with nuts. Which are biotic features. THe robin which is an omnivore would benefit from similar abiotic features but in oder to feed the biotic insects it will then eat. THe hawk would benefit from almost all abiotic and biotic features because it is at the top of the web and would consume the most of the animals.
- Farris Dwider
The most common organism was the soil mite and springtail X. Most of them were 1mm. The ground spider was the largest we found and springtail and soil mite was the smallest. 21FEB14
In this lab we were responsible for collecting 5 plant samples from our transect and also collecting 500g of soil from it as well. We then were responsible for going through each sample and answering questions based on our observations and researching the observations in order to come to the conclusion of what plant we had found. Below are is the link to the 5 plants we found.
Then after careful examination of all these plants we were to fill in our observations based on structured questions that would help us conclude what type of plant it was. These observations for each plant is presented in the table below.
Next we were responsible for observing samples and choosing one and figuring out if it was a fungi and why. We found one that belonged to the Ascomycota group. We knew it was fungi because their were visible black spores that are responsible in the reproduction process in fungi. Below is a picture we recorded of the fungi we identified.
Lastly, we took the soil and litter we collected and created a filter device to try and filter out organisms. In order to observe them next lab
In this lab we needed to observe our culture again. Also we had to observe the agar plates we made with samples from our culture and collect samples from what had grown on it. I do not believe any archaea will be present on our agar plates. THis is due to the fact most archaea are extremophiles, meaning that they live in very hot, cold, acidic, etc types of environments. Environments in which agar would not do its job correctly.
Smell or appearance can change week to week because nutrients could have been depleted. For example bacteria or other organisms can eat nutrients in the water for food. Causing certain organisms that could have been floating to disappear. Also particles that are in the water will slowly settle to the bottom of the jar. Gravity will than cause the dirt and other particles to condense at the bottom. This could lead to the water beginning to clear up. Also the smell can change as well because as organisms grow in the culture, certain ones can give off an odor. Like mold or algae, which can grow in the culture. The smell will increase over times as their populations grows and the odor becomes stronger.
Yes there is a difference between the cultures with and without the antibiotic because antibiotics kill bacteria. So it is harder for bacteria to survive under conditions where tetracycline is present. Although they will still be present in the less diluted samples but the numbers will be much smaller than the plates without tetracycline.
Tetracycline will cause the amount of bacteria to be much smaller and will kill many of the bacteria off. Although it will not have the same effect on fungus because antibiotics do not kill fungus. In fact it will have the opposite affect, tetracycline will kill bacteria that eats fungus causing the fungus population to be unhindered as a result. Only two species where unaffected by tetracycline.
Tetracycline do not directly kill bacteria, they inhibit the translation process in bacterial cells. This causes amino acids to not be translated into proteins. Tetracycline kills bacterial cells by stopping protein synthesis. Tetracycline is not very affective against strains called streptococcus and staphylococcus.
Below is the data and observations from the three agar plates we chose and the second picture is the observations of the bacteria we observed
This lab was about learning to identify different protist, algae, and other organism using a dichotomous key. This included making observations about the unknown organism in question. Such as size, shape, mobility, etc.
There was no smell coming from the culture. The appearance is dark and murky. There is a thin film of mold floating on top of the culture.
The first sample was taken from the mold film on top of out culture. THe second was taken from the bottom of the culture where the dirt was located.
I would predict that their would be a thick film of mold on top and that their may be some greenery like algae forming in the culture.
Selective pressures could include the size of our culture. THis could lead to organisms competing for limited resources within the culture. Also the amount of organisms, if there are many organisms in the culture then competition among them will go up as well and lead to some not surviving because they cannot occupy a niche and not get resources they need in order to survive.
ORGANISMS FROM TOP OF CULTURE
1)Paramecium Bursaria: Immobile, Protist, No Photosynthesis, 70um
2)Gonium Colony: Mobile, Algae, Photosynthesis, 110um
3)Colpidium: Mobile(cillia), Protist, No Photosynthesis, 50um
ORGANISMS FROM BOTTOM OF CULTURE
1)Chilomonas sp: Mobile, Algae, Photosynthesis, 25um
2)Gonium Colony: Mobile, Algae, Photosynthesis, 150um
3)Paramecium Caudatum: Immobile, Protist, No Photosynthesis, 210um
An example of an organism we observed that met all the requirements for life would be Chilmonas sp. This organism uses a flagellum to move itself around which shows that in requires nutrients in order to move itself because this takes energy. This organism is also able to replicate itself and it's hereditary information. It is also a single celled organism which makes it meets that qualification. Also it can create food via photosynthesis. This show that it meets all the qualification in order to be alive.
In this part of the lab we needed to create 4 agar plates of varying concentrations of our culture and 3 agar plates with varying concentration and added tetracycline. We took 100mL of sample from our culture and diluted it in 4 different beakers. Then took each unique concentration and put it in different agar plates. The image below shows the procedure for creating the agar plates.
13JAN14Lab #1 Our transect is tall grass and is pretty diverse. There are large patches of similar tall grass and large bushes that are scattered across the transect. Also there is a path that runs through our transect. there is also a lamp post in our transect. There are also small bushes and tall trees scattered around our transect. Also a few sprinklers are scattered around the transect as well.
Biotic features are small bushes, tall trees, bird, squirrel, tall grass. Abiotic features are sidewalk, light post, sprinklers, rocks, candy wrapper.