User:Rachel Weger/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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Week 6: Zebrafish Experiment (February 17, 2016)

Our Drug: Fluoride

Total Number of Control: 17

Total Number of Treated: 15


  1. Dead Eggs: 0 (control), 1 (treated)
  2. Living Embryos (still in egg case): 9 (control), 8 (treated)
  3. Living Hatchlings: 8 (control), 6 (treated)
  4. Dead Hatchlings: 0 (control), 0 (treated)


  1. Dead Eggs: 0 (control), 1 (treated)
  2. Living Embryos (still in egg case): 0 (control), 2 (treated)
  3. Living Hatchlings: 17 (control), 12 (treated)
  4. Dead Hatchlings: 0 (control), 0 (treated)


Week 5: Invertebrates and Vertebrates (February 10, 2016)


We were only able to observe 2 invertebrates in our Berlese Funnel collections, one which was a Flea (Siphonaptera) and one which was a kind of Lice (Mallophaga or Anoplura).

We identified the flea because it did not have wings and its body was laterally compressed. The flea was 7μm at 4x.

We identified the louse because it did not have wings, was not laterally compressed, and was a minute insect. The louse was 8 μm at 4x.

From the organisms collected we can conclude that our sample did not have the proper conditions for invertebrates to grow. The data might be different if we redid the experiment.

Vertebrates: Five Vertebrates That Might be Found in our Transect

Squirrels: Chordata, Mammalia, Rodentia, Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae, Sciurus carolinensis

- eats acorns (biotic) that fall from the tree

House Sparrows: Chordata, Aves, Passeriformes, Passeridae, Passer domesticus

- search for worms (biotic) hiding in the soil (abiotic)

Cardinals: Chordata, Aves, Passeriformes, Cardinalidae, Cardinalis cardinalis

- perch in the trees (biotic)

Salamanders: Chordata, Amphibia, Caudata, Ambystomatidae, Ambystoma maculatum

- look for food in the soil (abiotic)

Tree Frogs: Chordata, Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Hyla versicolor

- climb the trees (biotic)


Week 4: Plantae and Fungi (February 3, 2016)

Characteristics of Plants Collected from the Transect Characteristics Table

Plant 1 Plant #1 Under the Microscope Plant #1 under microscope

Plant 2 Plant #2 Under the Microscope Plant #2 under microscope

Plant 3 Plant #3 Under the Microscope Plant #3 under microscope

Plant 4 Plant #4 Under the Microscope Plant #4 under microscope

Plant 5 Under the Microscope Plant #5 under microscope


Week 3: Microbiology and Identifying Bacteria (January 27, 2016)

Hay Infusion Description Update: the film that covered the surface last time is now smaller, it smells the same - like a toilet (but not as strong as last time). Perhaps the smell and film diminished because less organisms are there, due to competition?

Serial Dilution Results

The picture above shows the results of the serial dilutions of the Hay Infusion Culture. Surprisingly, the tetracycline plates consistently had more colonies. This indicates that the tetracycline had no effect on slowing bacteria growth and, if anything, aided bacteria growth. This could be because the bacteria are now resistant to Tetracycline.

Materials and Methods for Gram Stain A small sample of growth was taken from the surface of the agar using a sterilized loop. The sample was then placed on a slide and mixed with a drop of water. With the bacterial smear side facing away from the flame, the slide was then heat fixed by passing it through flame three times. Next, the bacterial smear was coated in Gram's iodine mordant for one minute and then rinsed with water. The bacterial stain was then flooded with 95% alcohol for 10-20 seconds and then rinsed with water. Next, the smear was covered in safranin stain for 20-30 seconds and rinsed with water. After the excess water was blotted and the smear was allowed to dry, it could be observed under the microscope.

Materials and Methods for PCR Amplification and DNA Isolation Using a sterile toothpick, a small amount of a bacterial colony was added to 20μL of primer/water mixture in a PCR tube. The tubes were flicked to mix the solution together. The PCR products were run on an agarose gel in Week 4.

Bacteria Characterization Table

Bacteria Characterization Table

Bacteria #1 Bacteria #1

Bacteria #2 Bacteria #2

Bacteria #3 Bacteria #3

Bacteria #4 Bacteria #4


Week 2: Identifying Algae and Protists (January 20, 2016)

Hay Infusion Description: layer of mold over the surface, very strong smell

Sketch of Hay Infusion

Observed Organisms:

Top Layer Arcella

Using the dichotomous key, this organism was identified as Arcella, a type of protist. It was colorless, creeping, not spherical in shape, a constant shape (meaning it did not shape-shift), and was flattened. The Arcella was 50 micrometers in diameter.

Bottom Later Paramecium

Using the dichotomous key, this organism was identified as Paramecium Bursaria, a type of protozoa. It was colorless, exhibited motion, was covered in cilia, was trumpet-shaped/elongated, and swam rapidly in a corkscrew fashion. The Paramecium Bursaria was 70 micrometers in diameter. This organism meets the needs of life. The species uses energy because it moves and is made up of a cell. The lab notebook explains that the paramecium reproduce either asexually or sexually, fulfilling the need for replication. Paramecium store information in their nuclei. And finally, paramecium are a product of evolution because they are a part of the Alveolata lineage. Since Paramecium use energy, are made of cells, process information, reproduce, and evolve, they exhibit all of the needs of life.

The top and bottom layers were made up of primarily paramecium. There were very similar protists on both layers.

I predict that if the Hay Infusion was left to grow for another two months, there would be lots of competition for food since there would be no input into the environment. Eventually population would drop because of the competition.

Serial Dilution Procedure

The above picture shows how serial dilutions of the Hay Infusion Culture were prepared.


Week 1: Examining Biological Life at AU (January 13, 2016)

My lab group's transect, Transect 3, was located in the AU's garden near Hughes Hall. The transect is bound by a sidewalk and two lamp posts. Lots of shrubs and dead/decomposing leaves were on the ground. The soil was mixed with leaves. Frost covered the dirt and wood chips and the soil was hard from the cold. Some berries from a nearby tree had blown over onto our transect's ground. All plant life in the transect was decaying except for some healthy-looking leaves on the tree-like bushes. The biotic components we collected from the transect were the shrub plant, wood chip, tree twig, berry, and black leaf collected from the ground. The abiotic components we collected from the transect were frost, a scrap of aluminum foil, dirt, a rock, and a piece of gum.

Aerial View of Transect 3


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