IGEM:IMPERIAL/2007/Tutorials/Guide for Engineers/Standard Lab Techniques
The Molecular Biologist Toolbox Kit
Restriction enzymes are a class of enzyme that can causes specific cuts in a DNA molecule.The mechanism by which restriction enzymes cut DNA is by causing hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotides that make up DNA.
Restriction enzymes can be broadly split into two types:
- Exonucleases cleave DNA from the ends of the DNA molecule. The action of exonucleases will remove nucleotides from the ends of DNA.
- Endonucleases cleave within the interior of the DNA molecule. The action of endonucleases will cause fragmentation of DNA molecules.