Best of 2006-2007
Best of 2007-2008
- I like to briefly notate every paper I read, and it made sense to put it here. feel free to add anything more -Kelsic
- Eukaryotic Chemotaxis is locally dependent rather than globally polarized.
- Stochastic processes result in a biased-random-walk in the direction of chemical gradients:
- Membrane receptor binding events trigger local lamellipod extensions.
- Direction of chemical gradient determines an angular probability distribution for membrane extension.
- a single "compass-parameter" is sufficient to specify the probability distribution of the cell's biased random walk.
- dependent upon gradient strength and angular change per extension
- Experimental - Tracking cells during migration and chemotaxis: measured PI3-kinase activation in:
- primary DCs (I think this is Dendritic Cells) w/ C5a as a G protein coupled chemoattractant
- fibroblasts w/ platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)as a tyrosine coupled chemoattractant
- lamellipod extension seems to initial from mostly from the leading edge (which is another way of saying that the cell is polarized)
- chemotaxis is the biasing of the direction of movement for this leading edge
- the proposed "local coupling model" - receptor stimuli within the leading edge are coupled to unitary local lamellipod extensions that leads to a small turns to the right or left
- the unitary specification seems unnecessary as long as the coupling is local.
- assumptions - independent spatial signaling domains within the leading edge that are each capable of triggering local lamellipod extension.
- what could be the molecular mechanism of separation? diffusive or segregational? it seems that both are at work.
- scaling - typical local lamellipod extensions in DCs:
- leading edge: 20-30 micrometers
- local width, extension: micrometers
- time: 15-60 seconds
- local lamellipod extensions decouple left and right sides of leading edge, and each extension triggers a small turn in the direction of migration
- no significant temporal correlation between extensions on the right vs left side of leading edge
- slight correlation between mean extension (left vs right) and turn angle
- PI3K signaling
- PI3K concentration has cell polarization, and is activated by PDGF and C5a (PI3K indicated by Ph[Akt]-YFP tag )
- membrane concentration used for normalization (indicated by CAAX-CFP tag)
- YFP/CFP indicates PI3K local stochastically initiated pulses
- 3-10 micrometers^2, 30-90s duration, initiated several times per minute
- rapid and transient local production, decay through diffusion and degredation
- 80% of PI3K pulses precide significant lamellipod extensions 20-40 seconds later
- significant correlation (~.15) of extension initiation within local region (+- ~6 micrometer)
- random migration in no gradient is a useful search strategy, which then naturally progresses to gradient-biased chemotaxis
- angular chemotaxis equation: P(a) = C*e(g/d)Cos(a)
- a - angle
- C - normalization constant
- d - angular step size. typically: 0.5-4. degrees
- g - gradient strength
- g/d - Compass parameter: completely specifies directional tendencies